Congressional Research Service — Index 22 OCT 2014

Categories: All CRS (List)

crs logoUpdated FAS new 22 OCT 2014.

All links lead to Federation of American Scientists (FAS) archives.  Only the most recent report in any given series is preserved, If it is listed, it is the latest available version.

Critical Reference: Congressional Research Service (Not) Reflections of retiring director on the failure of CRS to make a difference.

FAS Table of Contents

NB 17 Jan 14: In the areas listed below and linked, FAS is the original comprehensive listing in reverse order as received — our index in support of FAS is in alphabetical order within a broader focus centered on intelligence and sane (honest) informed national strategy, policy, acquisition, and whole of government operations, all non-existent today in the USA. We have added Secrecy & Information Policy as a categories.

Conventional Weapons Systems  .  Foreign Policy & Regional Affairs  .  Homeland Security  .  General National Security Topics  .  Intelligence  .  Middle East  .  Nuclear Weapons & Arms Control  .  Secrecy & Information Policy  .  Space Policy  .  Terrorism  .  Topics (Miscellaneous)

FAS 22 OCT 2014 [Posted here and in main directory, deleted here when refreshed]

Al Qaeda-Affiliated Groups: Middle East and Africa

A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Comparison of Current Proposals in Brief

Conflict Minerals and Resource Extraction: Dodd-Frank, SEC Regulations, and Legal Challenges

Cybercrime: An Overview of the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Statute and Related Federal Criminal Laws

Eleventh Circuit Provides Guidance for the Definition of “Foreign Official” under the FCPA

EPA’s Upcoming Ozone Standard: How Much Will Compliance Cost?

Federal and State Quarantine and Isolation Authority

Home Is Where They Have To Take You In: Right to Entry For U.S. Citizens

Insurance and Climate Change: Do Governments Have a Duty to Protect Property Owners?

(No) Papers, Please: No Passports for U.S. “Foreign Fighters”

Nuclear Energy Policy

Smartphone Data Encryption: A Renewed Boundary for Law Enforcement?

Turkey-U.S. Cooperation Against the “Islamic State”: A Unique Dynamic?

U.S. Citizens Kidnapped by the Islamic State

Categories

Agriculture Including GMO & Global Food Aid
Acquisition, Fraud, Waste, & Abuse
Budget Including Authorization & Appropriations
Charity, Non-Profits, & Society
Commerce, Economy, Foreign Investment, Trade (with sub-categories)
Congress
Constitutional Issues
Cyber & Internet Including FOI, Privacy, NSA, Etcetera
Debt (including Deflation & Inflation)
Defense (with sub-categories)
Drugs, Drug Testing
Education including Student Loans
Electoral
Energy
Environment & Environmental Degradation and Disasters
Executive / Government Operations
Family including Abortion & Poverty
Foreign Relations (with countries in alphabetical order)
Health including Insurance
Homeland Security
Immigration
Indian Affairs
Intelligence Including Counterintelligence
Judiciary
Labor, Homelessness, Society, & Unemployment
Law Enforcement (includes Terrorism)
Research & Development
Revenue & Taxation [see also Debt]
Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics
Secrecy & Information Policy
Social Security
Space Policy
State & Local Governance & Issues
Transportation Including Infrastructure & Risk
Wall Street, Federal Reserve, Financial Crime, IMF Plus
Water

Acquisition, Fraud, Waste, & Abuse

Circular A-76 and the Moratorium on DOD Competitions: Background and Issues for Congress

Defense Acquisitions: How DOD Acquires Weapon Systems and Recent Efforts to Reform the Process

Evaluating the “Past Performance” of Federal Contractors: Legal Requirements and Issues

Federal Financial Reporting: An Overview

Government Procurement in Times of Fiscal Uncertainty

Improper Payments and Recovery Audits: Legislation, Implementation, and Analysis

Legal Protections for Subcontractors on Federal Prime Contracts

Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress

Overview of the Federal Procurement Process and Resources

The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement To Come From Domestic Sources

The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR): Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

The Nunn-McCurdy Act: Background, Analysis, and Issues for Congress

Transforming Government Acquisition Systems: Overview and Selected Issues

Agriculture Including GMO & Global Food Aid

Agricultural Conservation: A Guide to Programs

Bee Health: Background and Issues for Congress

Bee Health: The Role of Pesticides

Budget Issues Shaping a Farm Bill in 2013

Emergency Assistance for Agricultural Land Rehabilitation

Environmental Regulation and Agriculture

Expiration and Extension of the 2008 Farm Bill

Expiring Farm Bill Programs Without a Budget Baseline

Farm-to-Food Price Dynamics

Food Fraud and “Economically Motivated Adulteration” of Food and Food Ingredients

Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

International Food Aid Programs: Background and Issues

Lean Finely Textured Beef: The “Pink Slime” Controversy

Previewing the Next Farm Bill

Table Egg Production and Hen Welfare: The UEP-HSUS Agreement and H.R. 3798

The 2013 Farm Bill: A Comparison of the Senate Agriculture Committee-Reported Bill (S. 954) with Current Law

The 2013 Farm Bill: A Comparison of the Senate-Passed (S. 954) and House-Passed (H.R. 2642, H.R. 3102) Bills with Current Law

The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer

The Role of Local Food Systems in U.S. Farm Policy

Unapproved Genetically Modified Wheat Discovered in Oregon: Status and Implications

U.S. Farm Income

What Is the Farm Bill?

Budget Including Authorization & Appropriations

A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

Across-the-Board Rescissions in Appropriations Acts: Overview and Recent Practices

America COMPETES Acts: FY2008-FY2013 Funding Tables

Analysis of the Sandy Recovery Improvement Act of 2013

Army Corps Supplemental Appropriations: Recent History, Trends, and Policy Issues

Automatic Continuing Resolutions: Background and Overview of Recent Proposals

A Unified National Security Budget? Issues for Congress

Baselines and Scorekeeping in the Federal Budget Process

Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Brief History of the Gold Standard in the United States

Budgetary Treatment of Federal Credit (Direct Loans and Loan Guarantees): Concepts, History, and Issues for the 112th Congress

Budget Control Act: Potential Impact of Sequestration on Health Reform Spending

Budget Process Reform: Proposals and Legislative Actions in 2012

Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Budget “Sequestration” and Selected Program Exemptions and Special Rules

Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2013 Appropriations

Defense: FY2013 Authorization and Appropriations

Defense: FY2012 Budget Request, Authorization and Appropriations

Defense: FY2011 Authorization and Appropriations

Department of Homeland Security Appropriations: FY2014 Overview and Summary

Department of Homeland Security Appropriations: A Summary of Congressional Action for FY2013

Department of Homeland Security Appropriations: A Summary of the House- and Senate-Reported Bills for FY2013

Department of Homeland Security: FY2013 Appropriations

Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Entitlements and Appropriated Entitlements in the Federal Budget Process

Fact Sheet: The FY2013 State and Foreign Operations Budget Request

Federal Employees’ Retirement System: Benefits and Financing

Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Federal Reserve: Unconventional Monetary Policy Options

FY2014 Appropriations Lapse and the Department of Homeland Security: Impact and Legislation

FY2014 Supplemental Appropriations Request

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

The FY2014 Government Shutdown: Economic Effects

FY2013 Appropriations: District of Columbia

FY2013 Defense Budget Request: Overview and Context

FY2012 Appropriations Overview: Status of Discretionary Appropriations Legislation

FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues

FY2011 Appropriations in Budgetary Context

Homeland Security Department: FY2012 Appropriations

Homeland Security Department: FY2011 Appropriations

Improper Payments and Recovery Audits: Legislation, Implementation, and Analysis

Intelligence Spending and Appropriations: Issues for Congress

Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations

Legislative Branch: FY2012 Appropriations

Major Fiscal Issues Before Congress in FY2013

Mandatory Spending Since 1962

Military Construction: A Snapshot of the President’s FY2013 Appropriations Request

Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies: FY2013 Appropriations

Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress

Offsets, Supplemental Appropriations, and the Disaster Relief Fund: FY1990-FY2012

Operation Odyssey Dawn (Libya): Background and Issues for Congress

Overview of the Authorization-Appropriations Process

Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process

Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations

Reducing the Budget Deficit: Policy Issues

Renewable Energy R&D Funding History: A Comparison with Funding for Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Energy Efficiency R&D

Sequestration as a Budget Enforcement Process: Frequently Asked Questions

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2014 Budget and Appropriations

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2013 Budget and Appropriations

Statutory Limits on Total Spending as a Method of Budget Control

Submission of the President’s Budget in Transition Years

The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012: Modifications to the Budget Enforcement Procedures in the Budget Control Act

The Budget Control Act of 2011:  Budgetary Effects of Proposals to Replace the FY2013 Sequester

The Budget Control Act of 2011: The Effects on Spending and the Budget Deficit When the Automatic Spending Cuts Are Implemented

The Budget Control Act, Sequestration, and the Foreign Affairs Budget: Background and Possible Impacts

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

The Depreciating Dollar:  Economic Effects and Policy Response

The Executive Budget Process: An Overview

The Federal Budget: Issues for FY2014 and Beyond

The FY2014 State and Foreign Operations Budget Request

The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget Authority and Request, FY2010-FY2013

The National Defense Authorization Act for FY2012: Detainee Matters

The President’s Budget: Overview of Structure and Timing of Submission to Congress

The Volcker Rule: A Legal Analysis

Trends in Discretionary Spending

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act: History, Impact, and Issues

Veterans’ Medical Care: FY2013 Appropriations

Charity, Non-Profits, & Society

An Analysis of Charitable Giving and Donor Advised Funds

Monuments and Memorials in the District of Columbia: Analysis and Options for Proposed Exemptions to the Commemorative Works Act

Commerce, Economy, Foreign Investment, Trade

Agriculture

Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling

Corporate Conduct & Regulation

An Overview of the “Patent Trolls” Debate

Changes to the Residential Mortgage Market: Legislation, Demographics, and Other Drivers

Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations: An Overview

Corporate Expatriation, Inversions, and Mergers: Tax Issues

International Corporate Tax Rate Comparisons and Policy Implications

Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

The MF Global Bankruptcy, Missing Customer Funds, and Proposals for Reform

The STOCK Act, Insider Trading, and Public Financial Reporting by Federal Officials

Economic Depression & Recovery

Can Contractionary Fiscal Policy Be Expansionary?

Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis Economy

Inflation: Causes, Costs, and Current Status

Export

Boosting U.S. Exports: Selected Issues for Congress

Challenge to the Boeing-Airbus Duopoly in Civil Aircraft: Issues for Competitiveness

Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Export-Import Bank: Overview and Reauthorization Issues

Export-Import Bank Reauthorization Debate

Export-Import Bank Reauthorization: Frequently Asked Questions

Federal Permitting and Oversight of Export of Fossil Fuels

Foreign Assistance: Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs)

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA): Congressional Interest and Executive Enforcement

Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate

Harbor Maintenance Finance and Funding

Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

NAFTA at 20: Overview and Trade Effects

Reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank: Issues and Policy Options for Congress

The Specialty Metal Clause: Oversight Issues and Options for Congress

The U.S. Export Control System and the President’s Reform Initiative

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues

Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) and Its Role in U.S. Trade Policy

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and the Role of Congress in Trade Policy

U.S. Government Agencies Involved in Export Promotion: Overview and Issues for Congress

U.S. Natural Gas Exports: New Opportunities, Uncertain Outcomes

U.S. Oil Imports and Exports

U.S. Textile Manufacturing and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations

Intellectual & Patent Law

Aereo and FilmOn X: Internet Television Streaming and Copyright Law

Intellectual Property Rights Violations: Federal Civil Remedies and Criminal Penalties Related to Copyrights, Trademarks, and Patents

Mayo v. Prometheus: Implications for Patents, Biotechnology, and Personalized Medicine

Patent Reform in the 112th Congress: Innovation Issues

Protection of Trade Secrets: Overview of Current Law and Legislation

The Bayh-Dole Act: Selected Issues in Patent Policy and the Commercialization of Technology

The Federal Trade Commission’s Regulation of Data Security Under Its Unfair or Deceptive Acts or Practices

The Role of Trade Secrets in Innovation Policy

Insurance & Disclosure

SEC Climate Change Disclosure Guidance: An Overview and Congressional Concerns

Terrorism Risk Insurance: Issue Analysis and Overview of Current Program

Investment Foreign and US

Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Foreign Investment in the United States: Major Federal Statutory Restrictions

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

Manufacturing

Federal Tax Benefits for Manufacturing: Current Law, Legislative Proposals, and Issues for the 112th Congress

“Hollowing Out” in U.S. Manufacturing: Analysis and Issues for Congress

The Obama Administration’s Proposal to Establish a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation

U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective

Small Business

SBA Assistance to Small Business Startups: Client Experiences and Program Impact

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Small Business Administration: A Primer on Programs

Small Business Size Standards: A Historical Analysis of Contemporary Issues

Trade

Domestic Content Legislation: The Buy American Act and Complementary Little Buy American Provisions

Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate

NAFTA at 20: Overview and Trade Effects

Rising Economic Powers and U.S. Trade Policy

Trade Preferences: Economic Issues and Policy Options

Trade Primer: Qs and As on Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and the Role of Congress in Trade Policy

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) Negotiations

U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones: Background and Issues for Congress

U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

Transportation including Zones

Federal Freight Policy: An Overview

Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

Congress

501(c)(4)s and Campaign Activity: Analysis Under Tax and Campaign Finance Laws

Appropriations Subcommittee Structure: History of Changes from 1920 to 2013

Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Bills of Attainder: The Constitutional Implications of Congress Legislating Narrowly

Campaign Contribution Limits: Selected Questions About McCutcheon and Policy Issues for Congres

Casework in a Congressional Office: Background, Rules, Laws, and Resources

Changes to Senate Procedures in the 113th Congress Affecting the Operation of Cloture (S.Res. 15 and S.Res. 16)

Cloture Attempts on Nominations: Data and Historical Development

Commonly Used Motions and Requests in the House of Representatives

Congressional Authority to Limit Military Operations

Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2013

Congressional Commissions: Overview, Structure, and Legislative Considerations

Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2012

Congressional Lawmaking: A Perspective On Secrecy and Transparency

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management

Congressional or Federal Charters: Overview and Current Issues

Congressional Oversight

Congressional Oversight Manual

Congressional Oversight of Agency Public Communications:  Implications of Agency New Media Use

Congressional Participation in Article III Courts: Standing to Sue

Congressional Responses to Selected Work Stoppages in Professional Sports

Congress’s Contempt Power and the Enforcement of Congressional Subpoenas: A Sketch

Congress’s Contempt Power and the Enforcement of Congressional Subpoenas: Law, History, Practice, and Procedure

Congressional Salaries and Allowances

Continuing Resolutions: Overview of Components and Recent Practices

Cost-Benefit and Other Analysis Requirements in the Rulemaking Process

Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Enforcement of Congressional Rules of Conduct: An Historical Overview

Expulsion, Censure, Reprimand, and Fine: Legislative Discipline in the House of Representatives

Federalism, State Sovereignty and the Constitution: Basis and Limits of Congressional Power

Filibusters and Cloture in the Senate

Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments

First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th-113th Congresses

Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis

Health Benefits for Members of Congress

History of the Joint Committee on Reduction of Non-Essential Federal Expenditures (1941-1974), with Observations on Oversight Today

House Apportionment 2012: States Gaining, Losing, and on the Margin

How Measures Are Brought to the House Floor: A Brief Introduction

Independent Counsels, Special Prosecutors, Special Counsels, and the Role of Congres

Issues in Homeland Security Policy for the 113th Congress

Intelligence Estimates: How Useful to Congress?

Introduction to the Legislative Process in the U.S. Congress

Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2012 (74th-112th Congresses)

Leaving Congress: House of Representatives and Senate Departures Data Since 1989

Legislative Branch Agency Appointments: History, Processes, and Recent Proposals

Legislative Branch: FY2013 Appropriations

Legislative History Research: A Basic Guide

Legislative Research for Congressional Staff: How to Find Documents and Other Resources

Lobbying Registration and Disclosure: The Role of the Clerk of the House and the Secretary of the Senate

Loss of Federal Pensions for Members of Congress Convicted of Certain Offenses

Majority Cloture for Nominations: Implications and the “Nuclear” Proceedings

Members of Congress Who Die in Office: Historic and Current Practices

Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile

Midnight Rulemaking

Murder or Attempted Murder of a Member of Congress and Other Federal Officials and Employees: Implications in Federal Criminal Law and Procedure of Events in Tucson

Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2013

Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process

Procedural Analysis of Private Laws Enacted: 1986-2013

Proposals to Change the Operation of Cloture in the Senate

Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview

Representatives and Senators: Trends in Member Characteristics Since 1945

Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress

Roles and Duties of a Member of Congress

Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2013

Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables

Secret Sessions of the House and Senate: Authority, Confidentiality, and Frequency

Senate Select Committee on Ethics: A Brief History of Its Evolution and Jurisdiction

Senate Unanimous Consent Agreements: Potential Effects on the Amendment Process

“Sense of” Resolutions and Provisions

Sessions, Adjournments, and Recesses of Congress

Social Media in the House of Representatives: Frequently Asked Questions

Speakers of the House: Elections, 1913-2013

Status of a Member of the House Who Has Been Indicted for or Convicted of a Felony

The Amending Process in the Senate

The Judgment Fund: History, Administration, and Common Usage

Violence Against Members of Congress and Their Staff: Selected Examples and Congressional Responses

War Powers Litigation Initiated by Members of Congress Since the Enactment of the War Powers Resolution

When Congressional Legislation Interferes with Existing Contracts: Legal Issues

Women in the United States Congress, 1917-2013: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress

Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion

Constitutional Issues

Congressional Authority to Regulate Firearms: A Legal Overview

Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Constitutionality of Retroactive Tax Legislation

Detention of U.S. Persons as Enemy Belligerents

DNA Databanking: Selected Fourth Amendment Issues and Analysis

Drones in Domestic Surveillance Operations: Fourth Amendment Implications and Legislative Responses

Enforcement Use of GPS Devices to Monitor Motor Vehicles: Fourth Amendment Considerations

Exemptions for Firearms in Bankruptcy

Federal Assault Weapons Ban: Legal Issues

Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment

Gun Control Legislation

Gun Control Proposals in the 113th Congress: Universal Background Checks, Gun Trafficking, and Military Style Firearms

Health Care: Constitutional Rights and Legislative Powers

Home Is Where They Have To Take You In: Right to Entry For U.S. Citizens

Internet Firearm and Ammunition Sales

Legal Issues Related to the Lethal Targeting of U.S. Citizens Suspected of Terrorist Activities

Man without a Country? Expatriation of U.S. Citizen “Foreign Fighters”

NFIB v. Sebelius: Constitutionality of the Individual Mandate

(No) Papers, Please: No Passports for U.S. “Foreign Fighters”

Prayer and Religious Expression in Public Institutions: A Constitutional Analysis

Racial Profiling: Legal and Constitutional Issues

The Article V Convention to Propose Constitutional Amendments: Contemporary Issues for Congress

The Doctrine of Constitutional Avoidance: A Legal Overview

The Fourth Amendment Third-Party Doctrine

The No Fly List: Procedural Due Process and Hurdles to Litigation

The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: The Use of the Military to Execute Civilian Law

The Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act: An Overview of Limiting Tort Liability of Gun Manufacturers

The Speech or Debate Clause: Constitutional Background and Recent Developments

The Voting Rights Act of 1965: Background and Overview

The War Powers Resolution: After Thirty-Eight Years

War Powers Litigation Initiated by Members of Congress Since the Enactment of the War Powers Resolution

Warrantless, Police-Triggered Exigent Searches: Kentucky v. King in the Supreme Court

Wiretapping, Tape Recorders, and Legal Ethics: An Overview of Questions Posed by Attorney Involvement in Secretly Recording Conversation, August 9, 2012

Cyber & Internet Including FOI, Privacy, NSA, Etcetera

Access to Broadband Networks: The Net Neutrality Debate

Access to Government Information In the United States: A Primer

Amazon” Laws and Taxation of Internet Sales: Constitutional Analysis

Bitcoin: Questions, Answers, and Analysis of Legal Issues

Broadband Loan and Grant Programs in the USDA’s Rural Utilities Service

Cloud Computing: Constitutional and Statutory Privacy Protections

Cybercrime: An Overview of the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Statute and Related Federal Criminal Laws

Cybercrime: Conceptual Issues for Congress and U.S. Law Enforcement

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic

Cybersecurity: Cyber Crime Protection Security Act (S.2111) — A Legal Analysis

Cybersecurity: Selected Legal Issues

Data Security Breach Notification Laws

Deploying 5G (Fifth Generation) Wireless Technology: Is the United States on Track?

ECPA (Part I): Lawful Access to Stored Content

Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) (Part II): Geolocation Privacy and Surveillance

Fairness Doctrine: History and Constitutional Issues

Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions

Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Overview and Discussion of Proposed Revisions

Freedom of Information Act (FOIA): Background and Policy Options for the 113th Congress

Funding Emergency Communications: Technology and Policy Considerations

Governmental Tracking of Cell Phones and Vehicles: The Confluence of Privacy, Technology, and Law

Identity Theft: Trends and Issues

Internet Domain Names: Background and Policy Issues

Internet Firearm and Ammunition Sales

Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress

Issues and Challenges for Federal Geospatial Information

Pipeline Cybersecurity: Federal Policy

Privacy: An Abbreviated Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping

Privacy: An Abridged Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act

Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping

Privacy: An Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Privacy Protections for Personal Information Online

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Promoting Global Internet Freedom: Policy and Technology

Public Access to Data from Federally Funded Research: Provisions in OMB Circular A-110

Smart Meter Data: Privacy and Cybersecurity

Smartphone Data Encryption: A Renewed Boundary for Law Enforcement?

Social Media and Disasters: Current Uses, Future Options, and Policy Considerations

Spectrum Policy in the Age of Broadband: Issues for Congress

Spectrum Policy: Provisions in the 2012 Spectrum Act

State Taxation of Internet Transactions

Statutory Damage Awards in Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Cases Involving Copyrighted Sound Recordings: Recent Legal Developments

Telemarketing Regulation: National and State Do Not Call Registries

Terrorist Use of the Internet: Information Operations in Cyberspace

Text and Multimedia Messaging: Emerging Issues for Congress

The 2013 Cybersecurity Executive Order: Overview and Considerations for Congress

The Article V Convention for Proposing Constitutional Amendments: Historical Perspectives for Congress

The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape

The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA): Background, Legislation, and Policy Issues

The National Broadband Plan Goals: Where Do We Stand?

The Obama Administration’s Cybersecurity Proposal: Criminal Provisions

The Smart Grid and Cybersecurity — Regulatory Policy and Issues

The Target Data Breach: Frequently Asked Questions

United States v. Jones: GPS Monitoring, Property, and Privacy

Updating the Statutory Framework for Communications for the Digital Age: Issues for Congress

Video Relay Service: Program Funding and Reform

“What the Government Does with Americans’ Data”

Debt including Deflation, Fraud, & Inflation

A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

Addressing the Long-Run Budget Deficit: A Comparison of Approaches

Deflation: Economic Significance, Current Risk, and Policy Responses

Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Legislative Procedures for Adjusting the Public Debt Limit: A Brief Overview

Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations

Sovereign Debt in Advanced Economies: Overview and Issues for Congress

Standard & Poor’s Downgrade of U.S. Government Long-Term Debt

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

The Debt Limit Since 2011

The Financial Action Task Force: An Overview

The “Fiscal Cliff” and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012

The “Fiscal Cliff”: Macroeconomic Consequences of Tax Increases and Spending Cuts

The MF Global Bankruptcy, Missing Customer Funds, and Proposals for Reform

The Paris Club and International Debt Relief

The Sustainability of the Federal Budget Deficit: Market Confidence and Economic Effects

The United States as a Net Debtor Nation: Overview of the International Investment Position

Treasury Securities and the U.S. Sovereign Credit Default Swap Market

Defense

All — Generic Issues

A Historical Perspective on “Hollow Forces,”

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities — Background and Issues for Congress

Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Defense Acquisitions: How DOD Acquires Weapon Systems and Recent Efforts to Reform the Process

Defense: FY2014 Authorization and Appropriations

Department of Defense Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Background and Analysis

Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress

Department of Defense Food Procurement: Background and Status

Department of Defense Trends in Overseas Contract Obligations

Detainee Provisions in the National Defense Authorization Bills

DOD Alternative Fuels: Policy, Initiatives and Legislative Activity

DOD Purchase of Renewable Energy Credits Under the National Defense Authorization Act of 2012

Government Shutdown: Operations of the Department of Defense During a Lapse in Appropriations

Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

In Brief: Assessing DOD’s New Strategic Guidance

Increased Department of Defense Role in U.S. Ebola Response

Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2014

Military Justice: Courts-Martial, An Overview

National Security Strategy: Mandates, Execution to Date, and Issues for Congress

NATO Common Funds Burdensharing: Background and Current Issues

No-Fly Zones: Strategic, Operational, and Legal Considerations for Congress

No Remedy for Drone Deaths, CRS Legal Sidebar

Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Securing America’s Borders: The Role of the Military

Security Assistance Reform: “Section 1206″ Background and Issues for Congress

The 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) and Defense Strategy: Issues for Congress

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

The Department of Defense’s Use of Private Security Contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq: Background, Analysis, and Options for Congress

The Evolution of Cooperative Threat Reduction: Issues for Congress

The National Defense Authorization Act for FY2012 and Beyond: Detainee Matters

The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment

The Unified Command Plan and Combatant Commands: Background and Issues for Congress

Threats to U.S. National Security Interests in Space: Orbital Debris Mitigation and Removal

“U.S. Arms Sales: Agreements with and Deliveries to Major Clients, 2003-2010”

U.S. Periods of War and Dates of Current Conflicts

War in Afghanistan: Strategy, Military Operations, and Issues for Congress

Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

Defense – Base Closure, Military Construction, & Surplus Disposal

Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC): Transfer and Disposal of Military Property

Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information

Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal, Including the Law Enforcement 1033 Program

“Fast Track” Legislative Procedures Governing Congressional Consideration of a Defense Base Closure and Realignment (BRAC) Commission Report

Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

Military Base Closure: Socioeconomic Impacts

Military Construction: Analysis of the FY2012 Appropriation and Authorization

Defense – C4ISR & Network Enabled Capabilities (NEC)

Department of Defense Implementation of the Federal Data Center Consolidation Initiative: Implications for Federal Information Technology Reform Management

Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs: Status of the Integrated Electronic Health Record (iEHR)

Defense – Energy

Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress

The Navy Biofuel Initiative Under the Defense Production Act

Defense – Force Structure Including Coast Guard

Air Force F-22 Fighter Program

Army Drawdown and Restructuring: Background and Issues for Congress

Budget Highlight: Air Force Long Range Strike Bomber

C-130 Hercules: Background, Sustainment, Modernization, Issues for Congress

Chemical Weapons: A Summary Report of Characteristics and Effects

Cluster Munitions: Background and Issues for Congress

Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues

Defense Acquisition Reform: Background, Analysis, and Issues for Congress

Defense Acquisitions: How DOD Acquires Weapon Systems and Recent Efforts to Reform the Process

F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress

Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress

Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress

Marine Corps Drawdown, Force Structure Initiatives, and Roles and Missions: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues and Options for Congress

Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Nuclear Aircraft Carrier (CVN) Homeporting at Mayport: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Shipboard Lasers for Surface, Air, and Missile Defense: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Ship Names: Background For Congress

Navy TAO(X) Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

Pilotless Drones: Background and Considerations for Congress Regarding Unmanned Aircraft Operations in the National Airspace System

The Army’s Ground Combat Vehicle (GCV) and Early Infantry Brigade Combat Team (E-IBCT) Programs: Background and Issues for Congress

The Army’s Ground Combat Vehicle (GCV) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

The Army’s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

The Unified Command Plan and Combatant Commands: Background and Issues for Congress

U.S. Unmanned Aerial Systems

U.S. Air Force Bomber Sustainment and Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF): Background and Issues for Congress

Defense – Missiles & Missile Defense

Ballistic Missile Defense in the Asia-Pacific Region: Cooperation and Opposition

Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues

Proliferation of Precision Strike: Issues for Congress

Defense – Nuclear, Chemical, Biological

Bond v. United States: Validity and Construction of the Federal Chemical Weapons Statute

Chemical Weapons: A Summary Report of Characteristics and Effects

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations

U.S. Nuclear Weapon “Pit” Production Options for Congress

U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues

Defense – Personnel

A Guide to U.S. Military Casualty Statistics: Operation New Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom

Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management

Disability Benefits Available Under the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Veterans Disability Compensation (VDC) Programs

Employment for Veterans: Trends and Programs

Funeral Protests: Selected Federal Laws and Constitutional Issues

FY2015 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues

FY2014 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues

FY2013 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues

FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues,

GI Bills Enacted Prior to 2008 and Related Veterans’ Educational Assistance Programs: A Primer

Health Care for Veterans: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Improving Health Care Access for Veterans: H.R. 3230

Medal of Honor: History and Issues

Mental Disorders Among OEF/OIF Veterans Using VA Health Care: Facts and Figures

Military Funeral Honors and Military Cemeteries: Frequently Asked Questions

Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

Military Retirement Reform: A Review of Proposals and Options for Congress

Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources

Military Sexual Assault: Chronology of Activity in Congress and Related Resources

No Remedy for Drone Deaths, CRS Legal Sidebar

Overview of the Appeal Process for Veterans’ Claims

Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers

SBA Veterans Assistance Programs: An Analysis of Contemporary Issues

Sexual Assaults Under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ): Selected Legislative Proposals

Suicide Prevention Efforts of the Veterans Health Administration

Suicide, PTSD, and Substance Use Among OEF/OIF Veterans Using VA Health Care: Facts and Figures

The Military Commissions Act of 2009 (MCA 2009): Overview and Legal Issues

The Number of Veterans That Use VA Health Care Services: A Fact Sheet

The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 (Post-9/11 GI Bill): Primer and Issues

The Purple Heart: Background and Issues for Congress

U.S. Military Casualty Statistics: Operation New Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom

VA Housing: Guaranteed Loans, Direct Loans, and Specially Adapted Housing Grants

Veterans Affairs: Historical Budget Authority, FY1940-FY2012

Veterans and Homelessness

Veterans’ Medical Care: FY2015 Appropriations

Veterans’ Medical Care: FY2013 Appropriations

“Who is a Veteran?” — Basic Eligibility for Veterans’ Benefits

Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

Defense – Private Military Corporations

Department of Defense’s Use of Contractors to Support Military Operations: Background, Analysis, and Issues for Congress

The Department of Defense’s Use of Private Security Contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq: Background, Analysis, and Options for Congress

Drugs, Drug Testing

Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Reauthorizing the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Issues for Consideration

Education including Student Loans

501(c)(3) Organizations:  What Qualifies as “Educational”?

An Analysis of STEM Education Funding at the NSF: Trends and Policy Discussion

Banning the Use of Racial Preferences in Higher Education: A Legal Analysis of Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action

Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006: Implementation Issues

Common Core State Standards and Assessments: Background and Issues

Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management

ESEA Reauthorization Proposals in the 113th Congress: Comparison of Major Features

Federal Student Loan Forgiveness and Loan Repayment Programs

Federal Support for Academic Research

Financial Aid for Students: Online Resources

Financial Aid for Students: Print and Web Guides

Higher Education Tax Benefits: Brief Overview and Budgetary Effects

Interest Rates on Subsidized Stafford Loans to Undergraduate Students

School Construction and Renovation: A Review of Federal Programs

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education: A Primer

Student Bullying: Overview of Research, Federal Initiatives, and Legal Issues

Teacher Quality Issues in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

The Corporation for Public Broadcasting: Federal Funding and Issues

The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 (Post-9/11 GI Bill): Primer and Issues

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Categorical Eligibility

Title IX, Sex Discrimination, and Intercollegiate Athletics: A Legal Overview

Unauthorized Alien Students: Issues and “DREAM Act” Legislation

Unemployment Compensation (UC): Eligibility for Students Under State and Federal Laws

Value-Added Modeling for Teacher Effectiveness

Year-Round Schools: In Brief

Electoral

As Midterm Election Approaches, State Election Laws Challenged

Campaign Contribution Limits: Selected Questions About McCutcheon and Policy Issues for Congress

Congressional Redistricting: An Overview

Congressional Redistricting and the Voting Rights Act: A Legal Overview

Contemporary Developments in Presidential Elections

Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

FutureGen: A Brief History and Issues for Congress

Political Ads: Issue Advocacy or Campaign Activity Under the Tax Code?

Proposals to Eliminate Public Financing of Presidential Campaigns

Super PACs in Federal Elections: Overview and Issues for Congress

The Electoral College: How It Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

The National Voter Registration Act of 1993: History, Implementation, and Effects

The Presidential Nominating Process and the National Party Conventions, 2012: Frequently Asked Questions

The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress

Energy

An Overview of Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas: Resources and Federal Actions

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Technology Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs

Analysis of Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)

Canadian Oil Sands: Life-Cycle Assessments of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Research, Development, and Demonstration at the U.S. Department of Energy

China and the United States — A Comparison of Green Energy Programs and Policies

Effects of Radiation from Fukushima Dai-ichi on the U.S. Marine Environment

Energy Projects on Federal Lands:  Leasing and Authorization

Energy and Water Development: FY2013 Appropriations

Energy Policy: 113th Congress Issues

Energy Storage for Power Grids and Electric Transportation: A Technology Assessment

Energy Tax Incentives: Measuring Value Across Different Types of Energy Resources

Energy-Water Nexus: The Energy Sector’s Water Use

Energy-Water Nexus: The Water Sector’s Energy Use

European Union Wind and Solar Electricity Policies: Overview and Considerations

Europe’s Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification

Financing Natural Catastrophe Exposure: Issues and Options for Improving Risk Transfer Markets

Global Natural Gas: A Growing Resource

Hydraulic Fracturing and Safe Drinking Water Act Issues

Hydraulic Fracturing: Chemical Disclosure Requirements

Hydropower: Federal and Nonfederal Investment

Implication’s of Egypt’s Turmoil on Global Oil and Natural Gas Supply

Increasing the Efficiency of Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines: Process and Timing of FERC Permit Application Review

Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?

Israel’s Offshore Natural Gas Discoveries Enhance Its Economic and Energy Outlook

Keystone XL: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Assessments in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS)

Keystone XL Pipeline Project: Key Issues

Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication Plant and Plutonium Disposition: Management and Policy Issues

Natural Gas in the U.S. Economy: Opportunities for Growth

Nuclear Energy: Overview of Congressional Issues

Nuclear Energy Policy

Nuclear Power Plant Design and Seismic Safety Considerations

Nuclear Power Plant Security and Vulnerabilities

Oil and Natural Gas Industry Tax Issues in the FY2014 Budget Proposal

Oil Sands and the Keystone XL Pipeline: Background and Selected Environmental Issues

Pipeline Cybersecurity: Federal Policy

Prospects for Coal in Electric Power and Industry

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs

Renewable Energy R&D Funding History: A Comparison with Funding for Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Energy Efficiency R&D

Small Refineries and Oil Field Processors: Opportunities and Challenges

Social Media and Disasters: Current Uses, Future Options, and Policy Considerations

The Navy Biofuel Initiative Under the Defense Production Act

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Authorization, Operation, and Drawdown Policy

U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production in Federal and Non-Federal Areas

U.S. Energy: Overview and Key Statistics

U.S. Natural Gas Exports: New Opportunities, Uncertain Outcomes

U.S. Oil Imports and Exports

U.S. Renewable Electricity Generation: Resources and Challenges

U.S. Solar Photovoltaic Manufacturing: Industry Trends, Global Competition, Federal Support

U.S. Wind Turbine Manufacturing: Federal Support for an Emerging Industry

Weather-Related Power Outages and Electric System Resiliency

Environment & Environmental Degradation and Disasters

Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region

Air Quality: EPA’s 2013 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Army Corps of Engineers Water Resource Projects: Authorization and Appropriations

Automobile and Truck Fuel Economy (CAFE) and Greenhouse Gas Standards

Canadian Oil Sands: Life-Cycle Assessments of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS): A Primer

Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Research, Development, and Demonstration at the U.S. Department of Energy

Carbon Capture: A Technology Assessment

Carbon Tax: Deficit Reduction and Other Considerations

Cars, Trucks, and Climate: EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases from Mobile Sources

Chemical Facility Security: Issues and Options for the 113th Congress

Chemical Regulation in the European Union: Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals

Clean Coal Loan Guarantees and Tax Incentives: Issues in Brief

Clean Water Act and Pollutant Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

Climate Change and Existing Law: A Survey of Legal Issues Past, Present, and Future

Climate Change: Conceptual Approaches and Policy Tools

Climate Change Legislation in the 113th Congress

Climate Summit 2014: Warm-Up for 2015

Closing Yucca Mountain: Litigation Associated with Attempts to Abandon the Planned Nuclear Waste Repository

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act: A Summary of Superfund Cleanup Authorities and Related Provisions of the Act

Conflict Minerals and Resource Extraction: Dodd-Frank, SEC Regulations, and Legal Challenges

Congressional Primer on Major Disasters and Emergencies

Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies

Considerations for a Catastrophic Declaration: Issues and Analysis

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Recent Activities and Ongoing Developments

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: The Fate of the Oil

Desalination: Technologies, Use, and Congressional Issues

Drought in the United States: Causes and Current Understanding

Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress

Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research

Effects of Radiation from Fukushima Daiichi on the U.S. Marine Environment

Emergency Relief Program: Federal-Aid Highway Assistance for Disaster-Damaged Roads and Bridges

Energy-Water Nexus: The Energy Sector’s Water Use

Energy-Water Nexus: The Water Sector’s Energy Use

Environmental Laws: Summaries of Major Statutes Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Appropriations for FY2014 in P.L. 113-76

Environmental Regulation and Agriculture

EPA and the Army Corps’ Proposed Rule to Define “Waters of the United States”

EPA’s Proposed CO2 Rule for Existing Power Plants: How Would It Affect Nuclear Energy?

EPA’s Proposed Greenhouse Gas Regulations for Existing Power Plants: Frequently Asked Questions

EPA Standards for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Plants: Many Questions, Some Answers

EPA’s Upcoming Ozone Standard: How Much Will Compliance Cost?

Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court’s Climate Change Decision in Massachusetts v. EPA: A Chronology

Federal Climate Change Funding from FY2008 to FY2014

Federal Grants-in-Aid Administration: A Primer

Federal Involvement in Flood Response and Flood Infrastructure Repair: Storm Sandy Recovery

Federal Pollution Control Laws: How Are They Enforced?

Federal Regulation of Chemicals in Commerce: An Overview of Issues for the 113th Congress

FEMA’s Community Disaster Loan Program: History, Analysis, and Issues for Congress

Financing Natural Catastrophe Exposure: Issues and Options for Improving Risk Transfer Markets

Financing Recovery After a Catastrophic Earthquake or Nuclear Power Incident

Follow-On Biologics: The Law and Intellectual Property Issues

Fukushima Nuclear Crisis

FY2013 Supplemental Funding for Disaster Relief: Summary and Considerations for Congress

Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy

Hydraulic Fracturing and Safe Drinking Water Act Issues

Hydraulic Fracturing and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA): Selected Issues

Hydraulic Fracturing: Selected Legal Issues

Implementation of Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS): Issues for Congress

Insurance and Climate Change: Do Governments Have a Duty to Protect Property Owners?

International Climate Change Financing: The Green Climate Fund (GCF)

Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?

Japan’s 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami: Economic Effects and Implications for the United States

Keeping America’s Pipelines Safe and Secure: Key Issues for Congress

Keystone XL: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Assessments in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS)

Keystone XL Pipeline Project: Key Issues

Legal Issues Associated with the Proposed Keystone XL Pipeline

Manufacturing Nuclear Weapon “Pits”: A Decisionmaking Approach for Congress

Mountaintop Mining: Background on Current Controversies

Nanotechnology and Environmental, Health, and Safety: Issues for Consideration

National Park System: Establishing New Units

National Security and Emergency Preparedness Communications: A Summary of Executive Order 13618

Nondiscrimination in Environmental Regulation: A Legal Analysis

Nuclear Power Plant Sites: Maps of Seismic Hazards and Population Centers

Nuclear Regulatory Commission 10 C.F.R. 37, A New Rule to Protect Radioactive Material: Background, Summary, Views from the Field

Ocean Acidification

Oil and Chemical Spills: Federal Emergency Response Framework

Oil Sands and the Keystone XL Pipeline: Background and Selected Environmental Issues

Ozone Air Quality Standards: EPA’s 2015 Revision

Preparing for Disasters: FEMA’s New National Preparedness Report Released

President Obama’s Climate Action Plan

Proposed Reform of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) in the 113th Congress: S. 1009 Compared with S. 696 and Current Law

Regulation of Fertilizers: Ammonium Nitrate and Anhydrous Ammonia

Reorganization of the Minerals Management Service in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

Regulating Coal Combustion Waste Disposal: Issues for Congress

Rio+20: The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, June 2012

SEC Climate Change Disclosure Guidance: An Overview and Congressional Concerns

Severe Thunderstorms and Tornadoes in the United States

Shale Gas Gathering Pipelines: Safety Issues

Stafford Act Declarations 1953-2011: Trends and Analyses, and Implications for Congress

State CO2 Emission Rate Goals in EPA’s Proposed Rule for Existing Power Plants

Summary Report: Congressional Action on the FY2013 Disaster Supplemental

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under the Oil Pollution Act

The Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Claims of Property Rights “Takings”

The Endangered Species Act and “Sound Science”

The FutureGen Carbon Capture and Sequestration Project: A Brief History and Issues for Congress

The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget Authority and Request, FY2010-FY2013

The Helium-3 Shortage: Supply, Demand, and Options for Congress

The Japanese Nuclear Incident: Technical Aspects

The Motor Vehicle Supply Chain: Effects of the Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami

The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP): Issues in Brief

The National Flood Insurance Program: Status and Remaining Issues for Congress

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Lessons Learned and Issues for Policymakers

Update on Controlling Greenhouse Gases from International Aviation

U.S. Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

U.S. Tsunami Programs: A Brief Overview

Weather-Related Power Outages and Electric System Resiliency

Wildfire Management: Hotshot Crews

Why Some Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Are Not Sold Domestically

Executive / Government Operations

Advertising by the Federal Government: An Overview

Can Contractionary Fiscal Policy Be Expansionary?

Common Questions About Postage and Stamps

Comparing Compensation for Federal and Private-Sector Workers: An Overview

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Cost-Benefit and Other Analysis Requirements in the Rulemaking Process

Counting Regulations: An Overview of Rulemaking, Types of Federal Regulations, and Pages in the Federal Register

Department of Defense Implementation of the Federal Data Center Consolidation Initiative: Implications for Federal Information Technology Reform Management

DHS Headquarters Consolidation Project: Issues for Congress

Executive Branch Reorganization Initiatives During the 112th Congress: A Brief Overview

Executive Orders: Issuance, Modification, and Revocation

Federal Building and Facility Security: Frequently Asked Questions

Federal Conspiracy Law: A Brief Overview

Federal Depository Library Program: Issues for Congress

Federal Financial Reporting: An Overview

Federal Holidays: Evolution and Current Practices

Federal Land Ownership: Current Acquisition and Disposal Authorities

Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data

Federal Workforce Statistics Sources: OPM and OMB

Financial Disclosure by Federal Officials and Publication of Disclosure Reports

Former Presidents: Pensions, Office Allowances, and Other Federal Benefits

Gifts to the President of the United States

Government Transparency and Secrecy: An Examination of Its Meaning and Use in the Executive Branch

Inauguration Security: Operations, Appropriations, and Issues for Congress

In Brief: Clarifying the Concept of “Partnership” in National Security

Insourcing Functions Performed by Federal Contractors: An Overview of the Legal Issues

Interagency Collaborative Arrangements and Activities: Types, Rationales, Considerations

Internships, Fellowships, and Other Work Experience Opportunities in the Federal Government

National Security Professionals and Interagency Reform: Proposals, Recent Experience, and Issues for Congress

Outside Employment, “Moonlighting,” by Federal Executive Branch Employees

Overview and Issues for Implementation of the Federal Cloud Computing Initiative: Implications for Federal Information Technology Reform Management

Post-Employment, “Revolving Door,” Laws for Federal Personnel

Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations

Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Independent and Other Agencies During the 111th Congress

Presidential Authority to Impose Requirements on Federal Contractors

Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice, and Recent Developments

Presidential Policy Directive 8 and the National Preparedness System: Background and Issues for Congress

Presidential Reorganization Authority: History, Recent Initiatives, and Options for Congress

Presidential Review of Independent Regulatory Commission Rulemaking: Legal Issues

Presidential Signing Statements: Constitutional and Institutional Implications

Presidential Transition Act: Provisions and Funding

Presidential Travel: Policy and Costs

President of the United States: Compensation

Qualifications for President and the “Natural Born” Citizenship Eligibility Requirement

Reauthorizing the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Issues for Consideration

Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions

Recess Appointments Made by President Barack Obama

Reexamination of Agency Reporting Requirements: Annual Process Under the GPRA Modernization Act of 2010 (GPRAMA)

Researching Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Resources for Congressional Staff

Retaining and Preserving Federal Records in a Digital Environment: Background and Issues for Congress

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Sourcing Policy: Selected Developments and Issues

The Bureau of Prisons (BOP): Operations and Budget

The Debate Over Selected Presidential Assistants and Advisors: Appointment, Accountability, and Congressional Oversight

The Defense Production Act of 1950: History, Authorities, and Reauthorization

The Executive Budget Process: An Overview

The Federal Budget: Overview and Issues for FY2015 and Beyond

The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape

The Freedom of Information Act and Nondisclosure Provisions in Other Federal Laws

The Peace Corps: Current Issues

The Presidential Records Act: Background and Recent Issues for Congress

The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment

The Obama Administration’s Feed the Future Initiative

The Presidential Records Act: Background and Recent Issues for Congress

The President’s Budget: Overview of Structure and Timing of Submission to Congress

The President’s State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications

The Recess Appointment Power After Noel Canning v. NLRB: Constitutional Implications

The Receipt of Gifts by Federal Employees in the Executive Branch

The Senior Executive Service: Background and Options for Reform

The State Secrets Privilege: Preventing the Disclosure of Sensitive National Security Information During Civil Litigation

The Peace Corps: Current Issues

U.S. Postal Service: Background and Analysis of H.R. 2309 and S.1789 in the 112th Congress

The U.S. Postal Service: Common Questions About Post Office Closures

The U.S. Postal Service’s Financial Condition: A Primer

The U.S. Postal Service’s Use of Contractors to Deliver Mail: Background and Recent Developments

The U.S. Postal Service’s Financial Condition: Overview and Issues for Congress

The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions

War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

Family including Abortion & Poverty

Abortion and Family Planning-Related Provisions in U.S. Foreign Assistance Law and Policy

Abortion: Judicial History and Legislative Response

Aviation War Risk Insurance: Background and Options for Congress

Child Support: An Overview of Census Bureau Data on Recipients

Child Support Enforcement Program Incentive Payments: Background and Policy Issues

Child Welfare: Profiles of Current and Former Older Foster Youth Based on the National Youth in Transition Database (NYTD)

Child Welfare: Structure and Funding of the Adoption Incentives Program along with Reauthorization Issues

Child Well-Being and Noncustodial Fathers

Fatherhood Initiatives: Connecting Fathers to Their Children

Free Exercise of Religion by Closely Held Corporations: Implications of Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc.

Juvenile Victims of Domestic Sex Trafficking: Juvenile Justice Issues

Nonmarital Births: An Overview

Same-Sex Marriage and Supreme Court: United States v. Windsor and Hollingsworth v. Perry

Same-Sex Marriage: A Legal Background After United States v. Windsor

Same-Sex Marriages: Legal Issues

Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Statistics and Programs

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families: Welfare Waivers

The Proposed Equal Rights Amendment: Contemporary Ratification Issues

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: A Primer on TANF Financing and Federal Requirements

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: Responses to Frequently Asked Questions

The Unemployed and Job Openings: A Data Primer

U.S. Household Savings for Retirement in 2010

Foreign Relations

All — Generic Issues

Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements

Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress

Building the Capacity of Partner States Through Security Force Assistance

Civilian Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act: Federal Contractor Criminal Liability Overseas

Climate Summit 2014: Warm-Up for 2015

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

Conflict Minerals and Resource Extraction: Dodd-Frank, SEC Regulations, and Legal Challenges

Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2004-2011

Does Foreign Aid Work? Efforts to Evaluate U.S. Foreign Assistance

Eleventh Circuit Provides Guidance for the Definition of “Foreign Official” under the FCPA

Extraterritorial Application of American Criminal Law

Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

Foreign Assistance: Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs)

Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy

Foreign Investment and National Security: Economic Considerations

Foreign Ownership of U.S. Financial Assets: Implications of a Withdrawal

Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

Global Access to Clean Drinking Water and Sanitation: U.S. and International Programs

Global Security Contingency Fund (GSCF): Summary and Issue Overview

Hague Convention Treaty on Recovery of International Child Support and H.R. 1896

Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress

Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress

In Brief: Clarifying the Concept of “Partnership” in National Security

International Climate Change Financing: The Green Climate Fund (GCF)

International Criminal Court and the Rome Statute: 2010 Review Conference

International Crises and Disasters: U.S. Humanitarian Assistance Response Mechanisms

International Drug Control Policy: Background and U.S. Responses

International Food Aid: U.S. and Other Donor Contributions

International Illegal Trade in Wildlife: Threats and U.S. Policy

International Monetary Fund: Background and Issues for Congress

International Trade and Finance: Key Policy Issues for the 113th Congress

Membership in the United Nations and Its Specialized Agencies

Millennium Challenge Corporation

Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

NAFTA at 20: Overview and Trade Effects

No-Fly Zones: Strategic, Operational, and Legal Considerations for Congress

No Remedy for Drone Deaths, CRS Legal Sidebar

Osama bin Laden’s Death: Implications and Considerations

Piracy: A Legal Definition

Proliferation Control Regimes: Background and Status

Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI)

Promoting Global Internet Freedom: Policy and Technology

Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain

Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy

Rio+20: The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, June 2012

Rising Economic Powers and the Global Economy: Trends and Issues for Congress

Samantar v. Yousef: The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act and Foreign Officials

Securing U.S. Diplomatic Facilities and Personnel Abroad: Background and Policy Issues

Securing U.S. Diplomatic Facilities and Personnel Abroad: Legislative and Executive Branch Initiatives

Security Assistance Reform: “Section 1206″ Background and Issues for Congress

Sovereign Debt in Advanced Economies: Overview and Issues for Congress

Terrorism and Transnational Crime: Foreign Policy Issues for Congress

Terrorist Watch List Screening and Background Checks for Firearms

The Counterterrorism Partnerships Fund (CTPF) Proposal: Questions for Congress

The Eurozone Crisis: Overview and Issues for Congress

The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Issues for Congress and U.S. Contributions from FY2001 to FY2013

The Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative

The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

The Paris Club and International Debt Relief

The Peace Corps: Current Issues

The Proposed Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Background and Key Issues

The Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review (QDDR)

The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

The United Nations Human Rights Council: Issues for Congress

The World Bank Group Energy Sector Strategy

Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Trafficking in Persons: International Dimensions and Foreign Policy Issues for Congress

United Nations Regular Budget Contributions: Members Compared, 1990-2010

United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues

U.S. Defense Articles and Services Supplied to Foreign Recipients: Restrictions on Their Use

U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones: Background and Issues for Congress

U.S. Global Food Security Funding, FY2010-FY2012

U.S. Immigration Policy: Chart Book of Key Trends

U.S. International Broadcasting: Background and Issues for Reform

U.S. International Investment Agreements: Issues for Congress

U.S. Public Diplomacy: Legislative Proposals to Amend Prohibitions on Disseminating Materials to Domestic Audiences

U.S. Response to the Global Threat of HIV/AIDS: Basic Facts

U.S. Response to the Global Threat of Malaria: Basic Facts

U.S. Response to the Global Threat of Tuberculosis: Basic Facts

Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties

All — Regional Issues

African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA): Background and Reauthorization

Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy

Agriculture in the WTO Bali Ministerial Agreement

Al Qaeda-Affiliated Groups: Middle East and Africa

A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Comparison of Current Proposals in Brief

Central America Regional Security Initiative: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Change in the Middle East: Implications for U.S. Policy

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Chemical Regulation in the European Union: Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals

China’s Currency Policy: An Analysis of the Economic Issues

Conflict Minerals in Central Africa: U.S. and International Responses

Considerations for Possible Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State

Countering Terrorism in East Africa: The U.S. Response

European Union Enlargement

European Union Wind and Solar Electricity Policies: Overview and Considerations

Europe’s Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification

EU-U.S. Economic Ties: Framework, Scope, and Magnitude

Gangs in Central America

Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

Horn of Africa Region: The Humanitarian Crisis and International Response

Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2014

International Criminal Court Cases in Africa: Status and Policy Issues

Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Economic and Social Indicators

Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections

Latin America and the Caribbean: Key Issues for the 113th Congress

Latin America: Terrorism Issues

Maritime Territorial Disputes in East Asia: Issues for Congress

Middle East and North Africa Unrest: Implications for Oil and Natural Gas Markets

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Is It a Health Emergency?

NATO’s Chicago Summit

NATO: Response to the Crisis in Ukraine and Security Concerns in Central and Eastern Europe

NATO’s Wales Summit: Expected Outcomes and Key Challenge

Organization of American States: Background and Issues for Congress

Pivot to the Pacific? The Obama Administration’s ‘Rebalancing’ Toward Asia

Proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP): In Brief

Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America: An Overview and Selected Issues

Senkaku (Diaoyu/Diaoyutai) Islands Dispute: U.S. Treaty Obligations

The 2014 European Parliament Elections: Outcomes and Implications

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings in Vladivostok, Russia: Postscript

The Berne Union: An Overview

The Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR): Developments in Trade and Investment

The European Parliament

The European Union: Foreign and Security Policy

The European Union: Questions and Answers

The Eurozone Crisis: Overview and Issues for Congress

The EU-South Korea Free Trade Agreement and Its Implications for the United States

The “Islamic State” Crisis and U.S. Policy

The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

The Lord’s Resistance Army: The U.S. Response

The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Countries: Comparative Trade and Economic Analysis

Unaccompanied Children from Central America: Foreign Policy Considerations

U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit: Frequently Asked Questions and Background

U.S. Citizens Kidnapped by the Islamic State

U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

U.S.-EU Cooperation on Ukraine and Russia

U.S. Foreign Assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean: Recent Trends and FY2015 Appropriations

U.S. Foreign Assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean: Recent Trends and FY2013 Appropriations

U.S. Military Aid To Central Asia: Who Benefits?”

U.S. Trade and Investment in the Middle East and North Africa: Overview and Issues for Congress

U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act

Visa Waiver Program

Afghanistan

Afghanistan Casualties: Military Forces and Civilians

Afghanistan: Drug Trafficking and the 2014 Transition

Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Afghanistan: U.S. Rule of Law and Justice Sector Assistance

In Brief: Next Steps in the War in Afghanistan? Issues for Congress

Iraqi and Afghan Special Immigrant Visa Programs

“Surge Recovery” and Next Steps in the War in Afghanistan: In Brief

The Department of Defense’s Use of Private Security Contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq: Background, Analysis, and Options for Congress

U.S. Military Action Against the Islamic State: Answers to Frequently Asked Legal Questions

U.S. Textile Manufacturing and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations

War in Afghanistan: Campaign Progress, Political Strategy, and Issues for Congress

War in Afghanistan: Strategy, Military Operations, and Issues for Congress

Algeria

Algeria: Current Issues

Argentina

Argentina’s Defaulted Sovereign Debt: Dealing with the “Holdouts”

Armenia

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Australia

Australia: Background and U.S. Relations

U.S.-Australia Civilian Nuclear Cooperation: Issues for Congress

Azerbaijan

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Azerbaijan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Bahrain

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Bali

Agriculture in the WTO Bali Ministerial Agreement

Bangladesh

Bangladesh Apparel Factory Collapse: Background in Brief

Bosnia & Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Brazil

Brazil: Political and Economic Situation and U.S. Relations

Burma (see Myanmar)

Cambodia

Cambodia: Background and U.S. Relations

U.S.-Cambodia Relations: Issues for the 113th Congress

Canada

Canada-U.S. Relations

Financial Market Supervision: Canada’s Perspective

The U.S.-Canada Energy Relationship: Joined at the Well

Chile

Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

China

A Guide to China’s Upcoming Leadership Transitions

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

China and the United States — A Comparison of Green Energy Programs and Policies

China, Internet Freedom, and U.S. Policy

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities — Background and Issues for Congress

China’s Banking System: Issues for Congress

China’s Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues

China’s Economic Conditions

China’s Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States

China’s Holdings of U.S. Securities: Implications for the U.S. Economy

China’s Leaders Quash Hong Kong’s Hopes for Democratic Election Reforms

China’s Political Institutions and Leaders in Charts

China’s Rare Earth Industry and Export Regime: Economic and Trade Implications for the United States

China’s Sovereign Wealth Fund: Developments and Policy Implications

China’s Steel Industry and Its Impact on the United States: Issues for Congress

China/Taiwan: Evolution of the ‘One China’ Policy — Key Statements from Washington, Beijing, and Taipei

China’s Vice President Xi Jinping Visits the United States: What Is at Stake?

China-U.S. Trade Issues

Chinese Tire Imports: Section 421 Safeguards and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Human Rights in China and U.S. Policy: Issues for the 113th Congress

Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

Prospects for Democracy in Hong Kong: Results of the 2012 Elections

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Understanding China’s Political System

U.S. Assistance Programs in China

U.S.-China Diplomacy Over Chinese Legal Advocate Chen Guangcheng

U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

U.S.-Chinese Motor Vehicle Trade: Overview and Issues

U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress

U.S. Clothing and Textile Trade with China and the World: Trends Since the End of Quotas

U.S.-Taiwan Relationship: Overview of Policy Issues

What’s the Difference? — Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data

Colombia

Colombia: Background, U.S. Relations, and Congressional Interest

Peace Talks in Colombia

The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues

Cuba

Closing the Guantanamo Detention Center: Legal Issues

Cuba: Issues for the 112th Congress

Cuba: U.S. Policy and Issues for the 113th Congress

Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Cyprus

Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive

Cyprus: Status of U.N. Negotiations and Related Issues

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of Congo: Background and U.S. Policy

Ecuador

Ecuador: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Egypt

Egypt and the IMF: Overview and Issues for Congress

Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

Egypt in Crisis: Issues for Congres

Egypt: The January 25 Revolution and Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy

Implication’s of Egypt’s Turmoil on Global Oil and Natural Gas Supply

El Salvador

El Salvador: Background and U.S. Relations

El Salvador: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Georgia

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Georgia’s October 2012 Legislative Election: Outcome and Implications

Georgia’s October 2013 Presidential Election: Outcome and Implications

Georgia [Republic]: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Guatemala

Guatemala: Political, Security, and Socio-Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Haiti

Haiti: Developments and U.S. Policy Since 1991 and Current Congressional Concerns

Haiti Under President Martelly: Current Conditions and Congressional Concerns

Honduras

Honduras-U.S. Relations

Hong Kong (see China)

India

India: Domestic Issues, Strategic Dynamics, and U.S. Relations

India’s New Government and Implications for U.S. Interests

India-U.S. Economic Relations

India-U.S. Relations

India-U.S. Security Relations: Current Engagement

U.S.-India Security Relations: Strategic Issues

U.S. Nuclear Cooperation With India: Issues for Congress

Indonesia

Indonesia’s 2014 Presidential Election

Iran

Achievements of and Outlook for Sanctions on Iran

Department of Defense Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Background and Analysis

Interim Agreement on Iran’s Nuclear Program

Iran’s Ballistic Missile and Space Launch Programs

Iran-North Korea-Syria Ballistic Missile and Nuclear Cooperation

Iran Sanctions

Iran’s Nuclear Program: Status

Iran’s Nuclear Program: Tehran’s Compliance with International Obligations

Iran’s Threat to the Strait of Hormuz

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions

The Iran Hostages: Efforts to Obtain Compensation

Iraq

Conflict in Syria and Iraq: Implications for Religious Minorities

Department of Defense Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Background and Analysis

Iraq Crisis and U.S. Policy

Iraqi and Afghan Special Immigrant Visa Programs

Iraq: Oil and Gas Legislation, Revenue Sharing, and U.S. Policy

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

The Department of Defense’s Use of Private Security Contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq: Background, Analysis, and Options for Congress

The Kurds and Possible Iraqi Kurdish Independence

The Islamic State in Syria and Iraq: A Possible Threat to Jordan?

Use of Force Considerations in Iraq

Israel

Arab League Boycott of Israel

Israel and Hamas: Another Round of Conflict

Israel: Background and U.S. Relations

Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflicts, and U.S. Policy

Israel: Possible Military Strike Against Iran’s Nuclear Facilities

Israel’s Iron Dome Anti-Rocket System: U.S. Assistance and Coproduction

Israel’s Offshore Natural Gas Discoveries Enhance Its Economic and Energy Outlook

U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel

Japan including Okinawa

Fukushima Nuclear Crisis

Japan’s 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami: Economic Effects and Implications for the United States

Japan’s Possible Entry Into the Trans-Pacific Partnership and Its Implications

Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

The Japanese Nuclear Incident: Technical Aspects

The U.S. Military Presence in Okinawa and the Futenma Base Controversy

U.S.-Japan Economic Relations: Significance, Prospects, and Policy Options

“Womenomics” in Japan: In Brief

Jordan

Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

The Islamic State in Syria and Iraq: A Possible Threat to Jordan?

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Kenya

In Brief: The September 2013 Terrorist Attack in Kenya

Kenya: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Korea – North & South

Foreign Assistance to North Korea

Imports from North Korea: Existing Rules, Implications of the KORUS FTA, and the Kaesong Industrial Complex

Iran-North Korea-Syria Ballistic Missile and Nuclear Cooperation

Kim Jong-il’s Death: Implications for North Korea’s Stability and U.S. Policy

Non-Governmental Organizations’ Activities in North Korea

North Korea’s 2009 Nuclear Test: Containment, Monitoring, Implications

North Korea: Legislative Basis for U.S. Economic Sanctions

North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation

The EU-South Korea Free Trade Agreement and Its Implications for the United States

The Kaesong North-South Korean Industrial Complex

The Proposed South Korea-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA)

The U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

U.S. and South Korean Cooperation in the World Nuclear Energy Market: Major Policy Considerations

U.S.-South Korea Relations

Kosovo

Kosovo: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Kurdistan

The Kurds and Possible Iraqi Kurdish Independence

Kuwait

Kuwait: Security, Reform, and U.S. Policy

Lebanon

Lebanon and the Uprising in Syria: Issue for Congress

Lebanon: Background and U.S. Policy

Libya

Diplomatic and Embassy Security Funding Before and After the Benghazi Attacks

Libya: Transition and U.S. Policy

Operation Odyssey Dawn (Libya): Background and Issues for Congress

Responding to Libya’s Political and Security Crises: Policy Choices for the United States

Madagascar

Madagascar’s Political Crisis

Malawi

Malawi: Recent Developments and U.S. Relations

Malaysia

Malaysia: Background and U.S. Relations

Mali

Crisis in Mali

Mexico

Legislation to Approve the U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Hydrocarbons Agreement

Mexican Migration to the United States: Policy and Trends

Mexico and the 112th Congress

Mexico’s 2012 Elections

Mexico’s Drug Trafficking Organizations: Source and Scope of the Violence

Mexico’s Free Trade Agreements

Mexico’s New Administration: Priorities and Key Issues in U.S.-Mexican Relations

Mexico’s Oil and Gas Sector: Background, Reform Efforts, and Implications for the United States

Mexico’s Peña Nieto Administration: Priorities and Key Issues in U.S.-Mexican Relations

Proposed U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Hydrocarbons Agreement: Background and Issues for Congress

Status of Mexican Trucks in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions

Supporting Criminal Justice System Reform in Mexico: The U.S. Role

The Mexican Economy After the Global Financial Crisis

U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: the Merida Initiative and Beyond

U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

U.S.-Mexico Water Sharing: Background and Recent Developments

Moldova

Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy

Mongolia

Mongolia: Issues for Congress

Morocco

Morocco: Current Issues

Myanmar

Burma’s 2010 Election Campaign: Issues for Congress

Burma’s April Parliamentary By-Elections

Burma’s Political Prisoners and U.S. Sanctions

U.S. Policy Towards Burma: Issues for the 113th Congress

U.S. Sanctions on Burma

U.S. Sanctions on Burma: Issues for the 113th Congress

New Zealand

New Zealand: Background and Bilateral Relations with the United States

New Zealand: U.S. Security Cooperation and the U.S. Rebalancing to Asia Strategy

Nigeria

Nigeria: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Nigeria’s Boko Haram: Frequently Asked Questions

Oman

Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Pakistan

Direct Overt U.S. Aid Appropriations for and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2015

Flooding in Pakistan: Overview and Issues for Congress

Major U.S. Arms Sales and Grants to Pakistan Since 2001

Pakistan Political Unrest: In Brief

Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Aid Conditions, Restrictions, and Reporting Requirements

Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance

Pakistan-U.S. Relations

Pakistan-U.S. Relations: A Summary

Palestine

Israel and Hamas: Another Round of Conflict

Palestinian Authority: U.S. Payments to Creditors as Alternative to Direct Budgetary Assistance?

The Palestinians: Background and U.S. Relations

U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians

Panama

Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

The U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

Peru

Peru in Brief: Political and Economic Conditions and Relations with the United States

U.S.-Peru Economic Relations and the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

Philippines

The Republic of the Philippines and U.S. Interests

The Republic of the Philippines and U.S. Interests–2014

Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda): U.S. and International Response to Philippines Disaster

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico’s Political Status and the 2012 Plebiscite: Background and Key Questions

Qatar

Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations

Russia

Next Steps in Nuclear Arms Control with Russia: Issues for Congress

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Russian Military Reform and Defense Policy

Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

Russia Sanctions: Options

Russia’s Accession to the WTO and Its Implications for the United States

Russia’s Compliance with the INF Treaty

Russia’s March 2012 Presidential Election:  Outcome and Implications

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings in Vladivostok, Russia:  A Preview

The 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics: Security and Human Rights Issues

U.S.-Russia Economic Relations

U.S. Sanctions on Russia in Response to Events in Ukraine

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

Singapore

Singapore: Background and U.S. Relations

South Africa

South Africa: Politics, Economy, and U.S. Relations

South Sudan

The Republic of South Sudan: Opportunities and Challenges for Africa’s Newest Country

Sudan

The Crisis in South Sudan

Syria

Armed Conflict in Syria: U.S. and International Response

Conflict in Syria and Iraq: Implications for Religious Minorities

Iran-North Korea-Syria Ballistic Missile and Nuclear Cooperation

Lebanon and the Uprising in Syria: Issue for Congress

Possible U.S. Intervention in Syria: Issues for Congress

Proposed Train and Equip Authorities for Syria

Syria: Overview of the Humanitarian Response

Syria’s Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress

The Islamic State in Syria and Iraq: A Possible Threat to Jordan?

Taiwan (see China)

Tajikistan

Tajikistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Thailand

Thailand: Background and U.S. Relations

Timor-Leste

Timor-Leste: Political Dynamics, Development, and International Involvement

Tunesia

Political Transition in Tunisia

Tunisia: Recent Developments and Policy Issues

Turkey

Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations

Turkey’s 2007 Elections: Crisis of Identity and Power

Turkey-U.S. Cooperation Against the “Islamic State”: A Unique Dynamic?

Turkey-U.S. Defense Cooperation: Prospects and Challenges

Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Uganda

The Lord’s Resistance Army: The U.S. Response

Ukraine

Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

United Arab Emirates (UAE)

The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom and U.S.-UK Relations

The United Kingdom: Issues for the United States

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Venezuela

Hugo Chavez’s Death: Implications for Venezuela and U.S. Relations

Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations

Venezuela: Issues for Congress

Viet-Nam

U.S.-Vietnam Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2013: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

The United States and Europe: Responding to Change in the Middle East and North Africa

Western Sahara

Western Sahara

Yemen

Yemen: Background and U.S. Relations

Health including Insurance

Abortion: Judicial History and Legislative Response

ACA: A Brief Overview of the Law, Implementation, and Legal Challenges

Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the Appropriations Process: FAQs Regarding Potential Legislative Changes and Effects of a Government Shutdown

Beverage Industry Pledges to Reduce Americans’ Drink Calories

Brief History of NIH Funding: Fact Sheet

Cancellation of Nongroup Health Insurance Policies

Comparing Medicaid and Exchanges: Benefits and Costs for Individuals and Families

Compounded Drugs

Discretionary Spending in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Ebola: Basics About the Disease

FDA Regulation of Medical Devices

FDA’s Authority to Ensure That Drugs Prescribed to Children Are Safe and Effective

Federal and State Quarantine and Isolation Authority

Federal Authority to Regulate the Compounding of Human Drugs

Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Review of Fluoridation and Regulation Issues

Food Fraud and “Economically Motivated Adulteration” of Food and Food Ingredients

Health Benefits for Members of Congress

Health Benefits for Members of Congress and Certain Congressional Staff

Health Care: Constitutional Rights and Legislative Powers

Health Care Flexible Spending Accounts

Health Care for Veterans: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Health Insurance Exchanges Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Health Insurance Premium Credits in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Housing for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

How FDA Approves Drugs and Regulates Their Safety and Effectiveness

Implementing the Affordable Care Act: Delays, Extensions, and Other Actions Taken by the Administration

Improving Health Care Access for Veterans: H.R. 3230

Increased Department of Defense Role in U.S. Ebola Response

Individual Mandate and Related Information Requirements under ACA

Laws Affecting the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP)

Legislative Actions to Repeal, Defund, or Delay the Affordable Care Act

Mandatory Vaccinations: Precedent and Current Laws

Medicare Financing

Medicaid Coverage of Long-Term Services and Supports

Medicaid Financing and Expenditures

Medicare: History of Insolvency Projections

Medical Loss Ratio Requirements Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Issues for Congress

Medical Marijuana: The Supremacy Clause, Federalism, and the Interplay Between State and Federal Laws

Medicare, Medicaid, and Other Health Provisions in the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012

Medicare Primer

Medicare Trigger

Medigap: A Primer

Mental Disorders Among OEF/OIF Veterans Using VA Health Care: Facts and Figures

Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

Neglected Tropical Diseases: Background, Responses, and Issues for Congress

Overview of Health Care Changes in the FY2014 Budget Proposal Offered by House Budget Committee Chairman Ryan

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Annual Fee on Health Insurers

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions

Pharmaceutical Patent Settlements: Issues in Innovation and Competitiveness

Physician Practices: Background, Organization, and Market Consolidation

Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs

Prevalence of Mental Illness in the United States: Data Sources and Estimates,

Private Health Insurance Market Reforms in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Private Health Plans Under the ACA: In Brief

Progress in Combating Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs): U.S. and Global Efforts from FY2006 to FY2015

Public Health Service Agencies: Overview and Funding

Reauthorization of SNAP and Other Nutrition Programs in the Next Farm Bill: Issues for the 113th Congress

Regulation of Clinical Tests: In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and Genetic Tests

Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Safe at Home? Letting Ebola-Stricken Americans Return

Status of Federal Funding for State Implementation of Health Insurance Exchanges

Submission of Mental Health Records to NICS and the HIPAA Privacy Rule

Synthetic Drugs: Overview and Issues for Congress

Tax-Advantaged Accounts for Health Care Expenses: Side-by-Side Comparison, 2013

Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Statistics and Programs

The Affordable Care Act and Small Business: Economic Issues

The Controlled Substances Act: Regulatory Requirements

The 2014 Ebola Outbreak: International and U.S. Responses

The Ebola Outbreak: Select Legal Issue

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): An Overview

The FDA Medical Device User Fee Program

The Independent Payment Advisory Board

The Medical Device Excise Tax: Economic Analysis

The Mental Health Workforce: A Primer

The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR): Funding Issues After a Decade of Implementation, FY2004-FY2013

The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), U.S. Global HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Programs: A Description of Permanent and Expiring Authorities

The Project BioShield Act: Issues for the 113th Congress

The U.S. Infant Mortality Rate: International Comparisons, Underlying Factors, and Federal Programs

Upcoming Rules Pursuant to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The 2012 Unified Agenda

U.S. Global Health Assistance: Background and Issues for the 113th Congress

U.S. Response to the Global Threat of HIV/AIDS: Basic Facts

U.S. Response to the Global Threat of Malaria: Basic Facts

U.S. Response to the Global Threat of Tuberculosis: Basic Facts

Homeland Security [see also Immigration]

2014 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review: Evolution of Strategic Review

Apprehensions of Unauthorized Migrants along the Southwest Border: Fact Sheet

Deployable Federal Assets Supporting Domestic Disaster Response Operations: Summary and Considerations for Congress

Domestic Terrorism Appears to Be Reemerging as a Priority at the Department of Justice

FEMA’s Disaster Relief Fund: Overview and Selected Issues

Homeland Security Department: FY2012 Appropriations

Homeland Security Department: FY2011 Appropriations

Physical Security of the U.S. Power Grid: High-Voltage Transformer Substations

Preparing for Disasters: FEMA’s New National Preparedness Report Released

The First Responder Network (FirstNet) and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress

The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions

Immigration

Aliens’ Right to Counsel in Removal Proceedings: In Brief

Apprehensions of Unauthorized Migrants along the Southwest Border: Fact Sheet

Arizona v. United States: A Limited Role for States in Immigration Enforcement

Asylum and ‘Credible Fear’ Issues in U.S. Immigration Policy

Asylum and Gang Violence: Legal Overview

Asylum Policies for Unaccompanied Children Compared with Expedited Removal Policies for Unauthorized Adults: In Brief

Authority of State and Local Police to Enforce Federal Immigration Law

Brief History of Comprehensive Immigration Reform Efforts in the 109th and 110th Congresses to Inform Policy Discussions in the 113th Congress

Domestic Human Trafficking Legislation in the 113th Congress

Federal Taxation of Aliens Working in the United States

Immigration Detainers: Legal Issues

Immigration of Foreign Nationals with Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Degrees

Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 113th Congress

Immigration Policies and Issues on Health-Related Grounds for Exclusion

Immigration of Temporary Lower-Skilled Workers: Current Policy and Related Issues

Immigration-Related Detention: Current Legislative Issues

Immigration-Related Worksite Enforcement: Performance Measures

Immigration: Visa Security Policies

Interior Immigration Enforcement: Programs Targeting Criminal Aliens

Iraqi and Afghan Special Immigrant Visa Programs

Mexican Migration to the United States: Policy and Trends

Permanent Legal Immigration to the United States: Policy Overview

Prosecutorial Discretion in Immigration Enforcement: Legal Issues

Receipt of Unemployment Insurance by Higher-Income Unemployed Workers (“Millionaires”)

Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy

Smartphone Data Encryption: A Renewed Boundary for Law Enforcement?

Special Immigrant Juveniles: In Brief

The U.S. Foreign-Born Population: Trends and Selected Characteristics

Unaccompanied Alien Children: An Overview

Unaccompanied Alien Children: A Processing Flow Chart

Unaccompanied Alien Children–Legal Issues: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Unaccompanied Alien Children: Potential Factors Contributing to Recent Immigration

Unaccompanied Children from Central America: Foreign Policy Considerations

Unauthorized Aliens’ Access to Federal Benefits: Policy and Issues

Unauthorized Aliens in the United States: Policy Discussion

Unauthorized Aliens Residing in the United States: Estimates Since 1986

Unauthorized Alien Students: Issues and “DREAM Act” Legislation

Unlawfully Present Aliens, Higher Education, In-State Tuition, and Financial Aid: Legal Analysis

Unlawfully Present Aliens, Driver’s Licenses, and Other State-Issued ID: Select Legal Issues

U.S. to Review Cases Seeking Deportations

Indian Affairs

The Administrative Process by Which Groups May Be Acknowledged as Indian Tribes by the Department of the Interior

Intelligence Including Counterintelligence

9/11 Commission Recommendations: Joint Committee on Atomic Energy — A Model for Congressional Oversight?

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Set to Expire February 28, 2011

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Extended Until June 1, 2015
Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal Investigations: A Brief Legal Analysi

Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal Investigations: A Sketch

Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR): The U-2 Aircraft and Global Hawk UAV Programs

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Extended Until June 1, 2015

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, 1994-2006

Analysis of S. 1709: the Security and Freedom Ensured Act of 2003 (SAFE Act)

Anti-Terrorism Authority Under the Laws of the United Kingdom and the United States

Assassination Ban and E.O. 12333: A Brief Summary

Classified Information Policy and Executive Order 13526

Closing the Guantanamo Detention Center: Legal Issues

Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction: Establishment and Composition

Congress as a Consumer of Intelligence Information

Congress as a Consumer of Intelligence Information

Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives

Consolidating Intelligence Appropriation and Authorization in a Single Committee: 9/11 Commission Recommendation and Alternatives

Counterintelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives

Countries of the World and International Organizations: Sources of Information

Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions

Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information

Cyberwarfare

Digital Surveillance: The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act

Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals

Director of National Intelligence: Statutory Authorities

Domestic Intelligence in the United Kingdom: Applicability of the MI-5 Model to the United States

Electronic Surveillance Modernization Act, as Passed by the House of Representatives

FBI Intelligence Reform Since September 11, 2001: Issues and Options for Congress

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: Selected Legislation from the 108th Congress

Foreign Surveillance and the Future of Standing to Sue Post-Clapper

Fusion Centers: Issues and Options for Congress

“Gang of Four” Congressional Intelligence Notifications

Geospatial Information and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): An Overview for Congress

Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities

Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization

Governmental Tracking of Cell Phones and Vehicles: The Confluence of Privacy, Technology, and Law

H.R. 10 (9/11 Recommendations Implementation Act) and S. 2845 (National Intelligence Reform Act of 2004): A Comparative Analysis

Homeland Security Intelligence: Perceptions, Statutory Definitions, and Approaches

House Select Committee on Intelligence: Leadership and Assignment Limitations

Imagery Intelligence: Issues for Congress

Intelligence and Information-Sharing Elements of S. 4 and H.R. 1

Intelligence and Law Enforcement: Countering Transnational Threats to the U.S.

Intelligence Authorization Legislation: Status and Challenges

Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies

Intelligence Estimates: How Useful to Congress?

Intelligence Identities Protection Act

Intelligence Identities Protection Act

Intelligence Information: Need-to-Know vs. Need-to-Share

Intelligence Issues for Congress

Intelligence Reform After Five Years: The Role of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI)

Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004: “Lone Wolf” Amendment to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act

Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004: National Standards for Drivers’ Licenses, Social Security Cards, and Birth Certificates

Intelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives

Intelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives

Intelligence Reform Implementation at the Federal Bureau of Investigation: Issues and Options for Congress

Intelligence Spending and Appropriations: Issues for Congress

Intelligence Spending: Public Disclosure Issues

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Acquisition: Issues for Congress

Introducing a Public Advocate into the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act’s Courts: Select Legal Issues

NSA Surveillance Leaks: Background and Issues for Congress

Open Source Intelligence (OSINT): Issues for Congress

Overview of Constitutional Challenges to NSA Collection Activities and Recent Developments

P.L. 110-55, the Protect America Act of 2007: Modifications to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act

Polygraph Use by the Department of Energy: Issues for Congress

Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign Intelligence Information

Privacy: An Abbreviated Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping

Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping

Privacy: Total Information Awareness Programs and Related Information Access, Collection, and Protection Laws

Probable Cause, Reasonable Suspicion, and Reasonableness Standards in the Context of the Fourth Amendment and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act

Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004

Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113

Protecting Classified Information and the Rights of Criminal Defendants: The Classified Information Procedures Act

Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals

Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act

Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court: A Brief Overview

Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC): Selection of Judges

Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court: Procedural and Operational Changes

Renditions: Constraints Imposed by Laws on Torture

Requirements for Linguists in Government Agencies

Retroactive Immunity Provided by the FISA Amendments Act of 2008

S.Res. 445: Senate Committee Reorganization for Homeland Security and Intelligence Matters

Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues

Securing America’s Borders: The Role of the Intelligence Community

Security and Freedom Ensured Act (SAFE Act)(H.R. 1526) and Security and Freedom Enhancement Act (SAFE Act)(S. 737): Section By Section Analysis

Security Clearance Process: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Senate Select Committee on Intelligence: Term Limits and Assignment Limitations

Sensitive Covert Action Notifications: Oversight Options for Congress

Smartphone Data Encryption: A Renewed Boundary for Law Enforcement?

Special Operations Forces (SOF) and CIA Paramilitary Operations: Issues for Congress

Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To Be Informed of U.S. Intelligence Activities, Including Covert Actions

Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Overview of U.S.C. 1831 and 1832

Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Abridged Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1831 and 1832

Terrorism Information Sharing and the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Report Initiative: Background and Issues for Congress

Terrorist Surveillance Act of 2006: S. 3931 and Title II of S. 3929, the Terrorist Tracking, Identification, and Prosecution Act of 2006

The Department of Homeland Security Intelligence Enterprise: Operational Overview and Oversight Challenges for Congress

The Director of National Intelligence and Intelligence Analysis

The FBI: Past, Present, and Future

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: A Brief Overview of Selected Issues

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: A Sketch of Selected Issues

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of the Statutory Framework and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review Decisions

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: Comparison of House-Passed H.R. 3773, S. 2248 as Reported By the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, and S. 2248 as Reported Out of the Senate Judiciary Committee

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: Comparison of the Senate Amendment to H.R. 3773 and the House Amendment to the Senate Amendment to H.R. 3773

The Intelligence Community and 9/11: Congressional Hearings and the Status of the Investigation

The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) — Responsibilities and Potential Congressional Concerns

The National Counterterrorism Center: Implementation Challenges and Issues for Congress

The National Intelligence Council: Issues and Options for Congress

The National Security Agency: Issues for Congress

The Position of Director of National Intelligence: Issues for Congress

The Potential Federal Tax Implications of United States v. Windsor (Striking Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)): Selected Issues,

The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework

The SAFE Acts of 2005: H.R. 1526 and S. 737 — A Sketch

The State Secrets Privilege: Preventing the Disclosure of Sensitive National Security Information During Civil Litigation

The U.N. Convention Against Torture: Overview of U.S. Implementation Policy Concerning the Removal of Aliens

The U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and the U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review: An Overview

The U.S. Intelligence Budget: A Basic Overview

The War Crimes Act: Current Issues

To Create a Senate Select Committee on Intelligence: A Legislative History of Senate Resolution 400

Treatment of “Battlefield Detainees” in the War on Terrorism

U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques

U.S. Army School of the Americas: Background and Congressional Concerns

U.S. Intelligence and Policymaking: The Iraq Experience

U.S. May Face Significant Obstacles in Attempt to Apprehend Edward Snowden

U.S. Treatment of Prisoners in Iraq: Selected Legal Issues

Undisclosed U.S. Detention Sites Overseas: Background and Legal Issues

Judiciary

Application of Religious Law in U.S. Courts: Selected Legal Issues

Closing the Guantanamo Detention Center: Legal Issues

Comparison of Rights in Military Commission Trials and Trials in Federal Criminal Court

Confirmation of U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations in Presidential Election Years

Detention of U.S. Persons as Enemy Belligerents

Drug Courts: Background, Effectiveness, and Policy Issues for Congress

Federal Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Statutes

Federal Mandatory Minimum Sentencing: The 18 U.S.C. 924(c) Tack-On in Cases Involving Drugs or Violence

Foreign Surveillance and the Future of Standing to Sue Post-Clapper

In Re Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001: Dismissals of Claims Against Saudi Defendants Under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA)

International Criminal Court and the Rome Statute: 2010 Review Conference

International Criminal Court Cases in Africa: Status and Policy Issues

International Law and Agreements: Their Effect Upon U.S. Law

Introducing a Public Advocate into the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act’s Courts: Select Legal Issues

Judicial Activity Concerning Enemy Combatant Detainees: Major Court Rulings

Judicial Discipline Process: An Overview

Judicial Activity Concerning Enemy Combatant Detainees: Major Court Rulings

Length of Time from Nomination to Confirmation for “Uncontroversial” U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominees: Detailed Analysis

Mandatory Minimum Sentencing: Federal Aggravated Identity Theft

Military Justice: Courts-Martial, An Overview

National Security Letters: Proposals in the 112th Congress

Nominations to U.S. Circuit and District Courts by President Obama During the 111th and 112th Congresses

Obstruction of Justice: an Overview of Some of the Federal Statutes that Prohibit Interference with Judicial, Executive, or Legislative Activities

President Obama’s First-Term U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations: An Analysis and Comparison with Presidents Since Reagan

Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts: Procedural and Operational Changes

Role of Home State Senators in the Selection of Lower Federal Court Judges

Search and Seizure Cases in the October 2012 Term of the Supreme Court

The Ebola Outbreak: Select Legal Issue

The Elder Justice Act: Background and Issues for Congress

The No Fly List: Procedural Due Process and Hurdles to Litigation

U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations: Senate Rejections and Committee Votes Other Than to Report Favorably, 1939-2013

U.S. Circuit Court Judges: Profile of Professional Experiences Prior to Appointment

Whistleblower Protections Under Federal Law: An Overview

Labor, Homelessness, Society, & Unemployment

Ability to Repay, Risk-Retention Standards, and Mortgage Credit Access

A Brief Overview of Actions Taken by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) in Its First Year

An Analysis of the Distribution of Wealth Across Households, 1989-2010

Child Labor in America: History, Policy, and Legislative Issues

Consumers and Food Price Inflation

Delay in Implementation of Potential Employer Penalties Under ACA

Double-Dip Recession: Previous Experience and Current Prospect

Economic Growth and the Unemployment Rate

Expediting the Return to Work: Approaches in the Unemployment Compensation Program

Extending Unemployment Compensation Benefits During Recessions

Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA)

Federal Benefits and the Same-Sex Partners of Federal Employees

Federal Labor Relations Statutes: An Overview

Federal Minimum Wage, Tax-Transfer Earnings Supplements, and Poverty

Free Exercise of Religion by Secular Organizations and Their Owners: Implications for the Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Homelessness: Targeted Federal Programs and Recent Legislation

How Social Security Benefits Are Computed: In Brief

Immigration-Related Worksite Enforcement: Performance Measures

Inflation and the Real Minimum Wage: A Fact Sheet

Inflation-Indexing Elements in Federal Entitlement Programs

Job Creation in the Manufacturing Revival

Job Growth During the Recovery

Measuring the Loss of Manufacturing Jobs

Offshoring (or Offshore Outsourcing) and Job Loss Among U.S. Workers

Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC): A Fact Sheet

Poverty in the United States: 2012

Poverty: Major Themes in Past Debates and Current Proposals

Preserving Homeownership: Foreclosure Prevention Initiatives

Real Earnings, Health Insurance and Pension Coverage, and the Distribution of Earnings, 1979-2009

Rebuilding Household Wealth: Implications for Economic Recovery

Receipt of Unemployment Insurance by Higher-Income Unemployed Workers (“Millionaires”)

Returning to Full Employment: What Do the Indicators Tell Us?

Right to Work Laws: Legislative Background and Empirical Research

Rising Gasoline Prices 2012

Selected Characteristics of Private and Public Sector Workers

Sequestration: A Review of Estimates of Potential Job Losses

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination in Employment: A Legal Analysis of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA)

Survivor Benefits for Families of Civilian Federal Employees and Retirees

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF): Characteristics of the Cash Assistance Caseload

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF): Welfare-to-Work Revisited

Temporary Professional, Managerial, and Skilled Foreign Workers: Legislation in the 113th Congress

The “Pay Ratio Provision” in the Dodd-Frank Act: Legislation to Repeal It in the 113th Congress

Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency Program: Overview and Current Issues

The 2010 Census: Count Question Resolution Program

The American Opportunity Tax Credit: Overview, Analysis, and Policy Options

The Chained Consumer Price Index: What Is It and Would It Be Appropriate for Cost-of-Living Adjustments?

The Changing Demographic Profile of the United States

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB): A Legal Analysis

The Definition of “Supervisor” Under the National Labor Relations Act

The Distribution of Household Income and the Middle Class

The Emergency Food and Shelter National Board Program and Homeless Assistance

The Distribution of Household Income and the Middle Class

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA): An Overview

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA): An Overview

The Federal Minimum Wage: In Brief

The Increase in Unemployment Since 2007: Is It Cyclical or Structural?

The National Labor Relations Act: Background and Selected Topics

The Trend in Long-Term Unemployment and Characteristics of Workers Unemployed for Two Years or More

The Unemployment Trust Fund (UTF): State Insolvency and Federal Loans to States

The U.S. Income Distribution and Mobility: Trends and International Comparisons

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers

Unemployment Compensation (UC): Eligibility for Students Under State and Federal Laws

Unemployment Insurance: Legislative Issues in the 113th Congress

Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits

U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations During the Obama Presidency: Midyear Analysis and Comparison with Recent Presidents

Veterans and Homelessness

Vulnerable Youth: Background and Policies

Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs

Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act

Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Reauthorization Proposals in the 113th Congress: Comparison of Major Features of Current Law and H.R. 803

Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Reauthorization Proposals in the 113th Congress: Comparison of Major Features of Current Law and S.1356

Youth and the Labor Force: Background and Trends

Law Enforcement

American Foreign Fighters and the Islamic State: Broad Challenges for Federal Law Enforcement

American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

A Primer on the Reviewability of Agency Delay and Enforcement Discretion

Arizona v. United States: A Limited Role for States in Immigration Enforcement

Armed Career Criminal Act (18 U.S.C. 924(e)): An Overview

Authority of State and Local Police to Enforce Federal Immigration Law

Body Armor for Law Enforcement Officers: In Brief

Border Security: Immigration Enforcement Between Ports of Entry

Border Security: Immigration Inspections at Port of Entry

Border Security: Understanding Threats at U.S. Borders

Can Body Worn Cameras Serve as a Deterrent to Police Misconduct?

Changes in Airport Passenger Screening Technologies and Procedures: Frequently Asked Questions

Countering Violent Extremism in the United States

Crime and Forfeiture

Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal, Including the Law Enforcement 1033 Program

Defining Homeland Security: Analysis and Congressional Considerations

DHS Headquarters Consolidation Project: Issues for Congress

‘Dirty Bombs’: Background in Brief

‘Dirty Bombs’: Technical Background, Attack Prevention and Response, Issues for Congress

District of Columbia: Marijuana Decriminalization and Enforcement; Issues of Home Rule and Congressional Oversight

Domestic Federal Law Enforcement Coordination: Through the Lens of the Southwest Border

DNA Testing in Criminal Justice: Background, Current Law, Grants, and Issues

Drones in Domestic Surveillance Operations: Fourth Amendment Implications and Legislative Responses

Drug Offenses: Maximum Fines and Terms of Imprisonment for Violation of the Federal Controlled Substances Act and Related Laws

Early Release for Federal Inmates: Fact Sheet

Economic Downturns and Crime

Eleventh Circuit Provides Guidance for the Definition of “Foreign Official” under the FCPA

Enforcement Use of GPS Devices to Monitor Motor Vehicles: Fourth Amendment Considerations

Executive Order 13438: Blocking Property of Certain Persons Who Threaten Stabilization Efforts in Iraq

FBI Director: Appointment and Tenure

FBI Directorship: History and Congressional Action

Federal and State Quarantine and Isolation Authority

In Brief: The September 2013 Terrorist Attack in Kenya

Issues in Homeland Security Policy for the 113th Congress

Integration of Drones into Domestic Airspace: Selected Legal Issues

Interior Immigration Enforcement: Programs Targeting Criminal Aliens

Juvenile Victims of Domestic Sex Trafficking: Juvenile Justice Issues

Mail and Wire Fraud: A Brief Overview of Federal Criminal Law

Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress

National Security Letters: Proposals in the 112th Congress

Offices of Inspector General and Law Enforcement Authority

Organized Retail Crime

Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board: New Independent Agency Status

Public Mass Shootings in the United States: Selected Policy Implications

Ricin: Technical Background and Potential Role in Terrorism

School Resource Officers: Law Enforcement Officers in Schools

Southwest Border Violence: Issues in Identifying and Measuring Spillover Violence

Smartphone Data Encryption: A Renewed Boundary for Law Enforcement?

State Legalization of Recreational Marijuana: Selected Legal Issues

Statutes of Limitation in Federal Criminal Cases: An Overview

Survey of Federal Whistleblower and Anti-Retaliation Laws

Terrorism Information Sharing and the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Report Initiative: Background and Issues for Congress

Terrorism, Miranda, and Related Matters

Terrorist Watch List Screening and Brady Background Checks for Firearms

The “1033 Program,” Department of Defense Support to Law Enforcement

The Bureau of Prisons (BOP): Operations and Budget

The Domestic Terrorist Threat: Background and Issues for Congress

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA): A Summary

The Federal Bureau of Investigation and Terrorism Investigations

The Federal Prison Population Buildup: Overview, Policy Changes, Issues, and Options

The “Militarization” of Law Enforcement and the Department of Defense’s “1033 Program”

The SPEECH Act: The Federal Response to ‘Libel Tourism’

The Take Care Clause and Executive Discretion in the Enforcement of Law

Unauthorized Aliens: Policy Options for Providing Targeted Immigration Relief

U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Trade Facilitation, Enforcement, and Security

Warrantless, Police-Triggered Exigent Searches: Kentucky v. King in the Supreme Court

Wartime Detention Provisions in Recent Defense Authorization Legislation

Research & Development

Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2015

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2014

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2013

Federal Support for Academic Research

Publishing Scientific Papers with Potential Security Risks: Issues for Congress

Tax Gap, Tax Compliance, and Proposed Legislation in the 112th Congress

Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding and Activities

Revenue & Taxation [see also Debt]

A Brief Overview of Business Types and Their Tax Treatment

Alternative Minimum Taxpayers by State: 2009, 2010, and Projections for 2012

An Overview and Comparison of Senate Proposals to Extend the “Bush Tax Cuts”: S. 3412 and S. 3413

An Overview of Tax Provisions Expiring in 2012

An Overview of the Tax Provisions in the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012

Carbon Tax: Deficit Reduction and Other Considerations

Constitutionality of Retroactive Tax Legislation

Distributional Effects of Taxes on Corporate Profits, Investment Income, and Estates

Employee Stock Options: Tax Treatment and Tax Issues

Energy Tax Incentives: Measuring Value Across Different Types of Energy Resources

Federal Taxation of Aliens Working in the United States

Itemized Tax Deductions for Individuals: Data Analysis

International Corporate Tax Rate Comparisons and Policy Implications

Moving to a Territorial Income Tax: Options and Challenges

Overview of the Federal Tax System

Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives

Restrictions on Itemized Tax Deductions: Policy Options and Analysis

Taxation of Hedge Fund and Private Equity Managers

Tax Deductions for Individuals: A Summary

Taxes and the Economy: An Economic Analysis of the Top Tax Rates Since 1945 (Updated)

Tax Provisions Expiring in 2013 (“Tax Extenders”)

Tax Provisions to Assist with Disaster Recovery

Tax Rates and Economic Growth

Tax Reform in the 113th Congress: An Overview of Proposals

The 2001 and 2003 Bush Tax Cuts and Deficit Reduction

The Bush Tax Cuts and the Economy

The Corporate Income Tax System: Overview and Options for Reform

The Impact of the Federal Estate Tax on State Estate Taxes

Who Earns Pass-Through Business Income? An Analysis of Individual Tax Return Data

Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics

An Analysis of STEM Education Funding at the NSF: Trends and Policy Discussion

Immigration of Foreign Nationals with Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Degrees

Nanotechnology and Environmental, Health, and Safety: Issues for Consideration

Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer

National Science Foundation: Major Research Equipment and Facility Construction

NASA Appropriations and Authorizations: A Fact Sheet

Science and Technology Issues in the 113th Congress

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education: A Primer

The Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory

The DHS S&T Directorate: Selected Issues for Congress

The Endangered Species Act and “Sound Science”

The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Overview, Reauthorization, and Appropriations Issues

The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Overview, Reauthorization, and Appropriations Issues

The National Science Foundation: Background and Selected Policy Issues

The President’s Office of Science and Technology Policy: Issues for Congress

The U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce: Recent, Current, and Projected Employment, Wages, and Unemployment

Secrecy & Information Policy

A Primer on E-Government: Sectors, Stages, Opportunities, and Challenges of Online Governance

Access to Government Information In the United States: A Primer

Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress

Classified Information Policy and Executive Order 13526

Classified Information Procedures Act (CIPA): An Overview

Congress and the Internet: Highlights

Congressional Access to Executive Branch Information: Legislative Tools

Congressional Lawmaking: A Perspective On Secrecy and Transparency

Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information

Disclosure of Security Classified Information

Does Price Transparency Improve Market Efficiency? Implications of Empirical Evidence in Other Markets for the Health Sector

Federal Enterprise Architecture and E-Government: Issues for Information Technology Management

Federal Information Security and Data Breach Notification Laws

Freedom of Information Act (FOIA): Background and Policy Options for the 113th Congress

Freedom of Information Act (FOIA): Issues for the 111th Congress

Freedom of Information Act Amendments: 110th Congress

Government Secrecy and News Management by the Government, 1961-71: a Selected Bibliography

Government Transparency and Secrecy: An Examination of Meaning and Its Use in the Executive Branch

High Performance Computers and Export Control Policy: Issues for Congress

Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007: The Role of the Clerk of the House and Secretary of the Senate

House Resolutions of Inquiry

Interstate Travel: Constitutional Challenges to the Identification Requirement and Other Transportation Security Regulations

Journalists’ Privilege to Withhold Information in Judicial and Other Proceedings: State Shield Statutes

Journalists’ Privilege: Overview of the Law and 109th Congress Legislation

Journalists’ Privilege: Overview of the Law and Legislation in the 110th and 111th Congresses

Legal Consequences of Efforts to Induce White House Staff to Waive “Newsman’s Source” Protection in Connection with an Investigation of the Disclosure of an Individual’s CIA Affiliation, CRS memo to the House Government Reform Committee, April 30, 2004, transmitted to the White House August 30, 2004

Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources

On Whether an Agency May Prohibit a Federal Officer from Providing Accurate Cost Information to the U.S. Congress, memorandum for Rep. Charles Rangel, April 26, 2004

Open Access Publishing and Citation Archives: Background and Controversy

Paperwork Reduction Act Reauthorization and Government Information Management Issues

Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice, and Recent Developments

Presidential Libraries: The Federal System and Related Legislation

Privacy Protection: Mandating New Arrangements to Implement and Assess Federal Privacy Policy and Practice

Protecting Classified Information and the Rights of Criminal Defendants: The Classified Information Procedures Act

Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals

Protection of National Security Information

Protection of Security-Related Information

Public Access to Data from Federally Funded Research: Provisions in OMB Circular A-110

Publishing Scientific Papers with Potential Security Risks: Issues for Congress

Reauthorization of the E-Government Act: A Brief Overview

Reporting Requirements in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008

Resolutions of Inquiry: An Analysis of Their Use in the House, 1947-2011

Restructuring EPA’s Libraries: Background and Issues for Congress

Secrecy Versus Openness: New Proposed Arrangements for Balancing Competing Needs

Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview

Secret Sessions of the House and Senate

Secret Sessions of the House and Senate: Authority, Confidentiality, and Frequency

Security Classification Policy and Procedure: E.O. 12958, as Amended

Security Classified and Controlled Information: History, Status, and Emerging Management Issues

Security Clearance Process: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Sensitive But Unclassified” and Other Federal Security Controls on Scientific and Technical Information: History and Current Controversy

Sensitive But Unclassified” Information and Other Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific and Technical Information

Sensitive Security Information and Transportation Security: Issues and Congressional Options

Sensitive Security Information

State E-Government Strategies: Identifying Best Practices and Applications

Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Overview of U.S.C. 1831 and 1832

Televising Supreme Court and Other Federal Court Proceedings: Legislation and Issues

The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate

The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate

The Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act: Background, Overview, and Implementation Issues

The Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act: Implementation and Proposed Amendments

The Freedom of Information Act and Nondisclosure Provisions in Other Federal Laws

The Information Quality Act: OMB’s Guidance and Initial Implementation,

The Obama Administration’s Open Government Initiative: Issues for Congress

The Presidential Libraries Act and the Establishment of Presidential Libraries

The Presidential Records Act: Background and Recent Issues for Congress

The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework

The Role of Trade Secrets in Innovation Policy

The State Secrets Privilege and Other Limits on Litigation Involving Classified Information

The State Secrets Privilege: Preventing the Disclosure of Sensitive National Security Information During Civil Litigation

The Unified Agenda: Implications for Rulemaking Transparency and Participation

Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources

U.S. Public Diplomacy: Legislative Proposals to Amend Prohibitions on Disseminating Materials to Domestic Audiences

Social Security

Disability Benefits Available Under the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Veterans Disability Compensation (VDC) Programs

Increasing the Social Security Payroll Tax Base: Options and Effects on Tax Burdens

Social Security: Cost-of-Living Adjustments

Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) Reform: An Overview of Proposals to Reduce the Growth in SSDI Rolls

Social Security Primer

Social Security Reform: Current Issues and Legislation

Social Security Reform: Legal Analysis of Social Security Benefit Entitlement Issues

Social Security: The Trust Fund

Social Security: What Would Happen If the Trust Funds Ran Out?

State & Local Governance & Issues

Arizona v. United States: A Limited Role for States in Immigration Enforcement

Authority of State and Local Police to Enforce Federal Immigration Law

Block Grants: Perspectives and Controversies

Federal Emergency Management: A Brief Introduction

Medical Marijuana: The Supremacy Clause, Federalism, and the Interplay Between State and Federal Laws

Moving to a Territorial Income Tax: Options and Challenges

Stafford Act Declarations 1953-2011: Trends and Analyses, and Implications for Congress

State Government Fiscal Stress and Federal Assistance

State Marijuana Legalization Initiatives: Implications for Federal Law Enforcement

The Article V Convention for Proposing Constitutional Amendments: Historical Perspectives for Congress

The Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Strategy: In Brief

The Impact of the Federal Estate Tax on State Estate Taxes

The Unemployment Trust Fund (UTF): State Insolvency and Federal Loans to States

Unemployment Compensation (UC): Eligibility for Students Under State and Federal Laws

Transportation Including Infrastructure & Risk

Airline Passenger Rights: The Federal Role in Aviation Consumer Protection

Airport Body Scanners: The Role of Advanced Imaging Technology in Airline Passenger Screening

Airport Privatization: Issues and Options for Congress

“Black Boxes” in Passenger Vehicles: Policy Issues

Chemical Facility Security: Issues and Options for the 112th Congress,

Critical Infrastructure Resilience: The Evolution of Policy and Programs and Issues for Congress

Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy and Implementation

Earthquake Risk and U.S. Highway Infrastructure: Frequently Asked Questions

Electric Utility Infrastructure Vulnerabilities: Transformers, Towers, and Terrorism

Ensuring That Traffic Signs Are Visible at Night: Federal Regulations

Federal Aid to Roads and Highways Since the 18th Century: A Legislative History

Federal Civil Aviation Programs: In Brief

Federal Public Transportation Program: An Overview

Federal Traffic Safety Programs: An Overview

Funding and Financing Highways and Public Transportation

Keeping America’s Pipelines Safe and Secure: Key Issues for Congress

National Infrastructure Bank: Overview and Current Legislation

Pipeline Cybersecurity: Federal Policy

Possible Missile Attack on Malaysia Airlines Flight 17

Proposed Cuts to Air Traffic Control Towers Under Budget Sequestration: Background and Considerations for Congress

Protecting Civilian Flights from Missiles

Screening and Securing Air Cargo: Background and Issues for Congress

Sequestration at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): Air Traffic Controller Furloughs and Congressional Response

Shipping U.S. Crude Oil by Water: Vessel Flag Requirements and Safety Issues

Surface Transportation Funding and Programs Under MAP-21: Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (P.L. 112-141)

The Development of High Speed Rail in the United States: Issues and Recent Events

U.S. Rail Transportation of Crude Oil: Background and Issues for Congress

Wall Street, Federal Reserve, Financial Crime, IMF Plus

An Analysis of Where American Companies Report Profits: Indications of Profit Shifting

An Overview of the Housing Finance System in the United States

Changing the Federal Reserve’s Mandate: An Economic Analysis

Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress

“Dark Pools” In Equity Trading: Significance and Recent Developments

Designating Systemically Important Financial Institutions (SIFIs)

DOJ & Bank of America Enter Biggest Civil Settlement in U.S. History

Evaluating the Current Stance of Monetary Policy Using a Taylor Rule

Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s Financial Problems

Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s Financial Status: Frequently Asked Questions

Federal Reserve: Unconventional Monetary Policy Options

Financial Condition of Depository Banks

Financial Performance of the Major Oil Companies, 2007-2011

Financial Stability Oversight Council: A Framework to Mitigate Systemic Risk

Government Assistance for AIG: Summary and Cost

High-Frequency Trading: Background, Concerns, and Regulatory Developments

IMF Reforms: Issues for Congress

Independence of Federal Financial Regulators

International Climate Change Financing: The Climate Investment Funds (CIFs)

International Environmental Financing: The Global Environment Facility (GEF)

International Monetary Fund: Background and Issues for Congress

JP Morgan Trading Losses: Implications for the Volcker Rule and Other Regulation

LIBOR: Frequently Asked Questions

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2013

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Shadow Banking: Background and Policy Issues

Systemically Important or “Too Big to Fail” Financial Institutions

Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion

Terrorism Risk Insurance: Issue Analysis and Overview of Current Program

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission: Background and Current Issues

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act: Title VII, Derivatives

The FHA Single-Family Mortgage Insurance Program: Financial Status and Related Current Issues

The Role of TARP Assistance in the Restructuring of General Motors

Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP): Implementation and Status

U.S. Implementation of the Basel Capital Regulatory Framework

What Is Systemic Risk? Does It Apply to Recent JP Morgan Losses?

Who Regulates Whom and How? An Overview of U.S. Financial Regulatory Policy for Banking and Securities Markets

Water

U.S.-Mexico Water Sharing: Background and Recent Developments

Water Resource Issues in the 113th Congress

– – – – – – – – – – – – –

Phi Beta Iota:  The below do not include reports generated privately for individual Members.  They are generated by CRS as it sees fit.  Comparing the reports with the ten high-level threats to humanity, the twelve core policy domains, and the eight demographic challengers as contained in the Strategic Analytic Model created by the Earth Intelligence Network (501c3), illuminates the lack of a holistic model for thinking at CRS or in Congress.  The efforts of the Congressional Research Service (CRS) not-with-standing, we must also remember that Members vote along party lines and on the basis of briefings and contributions provided by special interests.  Lacking is an Open Source Agency (OSA) that can provide ethical evidence-based decision-support to BOTH Congressional jurisdictions AND the Executive elements that do not receive intelligence support today from the secret world — with the added advantage of the decision-support being shareable with the public, the media, and all multinational stakeholders — we should not expect informed decision-making from either the Legislative or the Executive branches.

Jul 2

Comments are closed.