$1.3 trillion a year or 11% of GDP in international dollars. This assumes conventional financing and conventional technologies and conventional processes.
In Britain, three basic things would lay the groundwork for a more controlled shift of pricing power towards the workforce and away from employers: the right to a written contract; the obligation to publish salary bands for specific job titles in private-sector firms; and limiting temporary contracts to genuinely temporary or seasonal tasks.
There is one notable aspect to the Volkswagen emission-cheating scandal that few commentators have mentioned: It would not have happened if the software for the pollution-control equipment had been open source. Volkswagen knew it could defraud consumers and deceive regulators precisely because its software was closed, proprietary and legally protected from outside scrutiny. Hardly anyone could readily check to see if the software was performing as claimed.